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Notas e referências

Notas

  1. a b c John Meier afirma que o ano de nascimento de Jesus é cerca de 7/6 a.C.[1] Por outro lado, Karl Rahner afirma que o consenso entre historiadores é c. 4 a.C.[2] Sanders é favorável a 4 a.C. e aponta o consenso geral para essa data.[3] Finegan aponta como provável c. 3/2 a.C., em função de tradições do cristianismo primitivo.[4]
  2. a b c A maior parte dos historiadores estima que Jesus foi crucificado entre os anos 30 e 33 d.C.[6]
  3. Os cristãos acreditam que Maria concebeu o filho através do milagre do Espírito Santo. Os muçulmanos acreditam que concebeu o filho de forma milagrosa por ordem de Deus. Segundo as perspectivas religiosas, José foi quem desempenhou o papel de pai no mundo físico.
  4. James D.G. Dunn afirma que os episódios do batismo e crucificação de Jesus são consensuais e universalmente aceites enquanto factos históricos pelos historiadores contemporâneos, sendo praticamente impossível duvidar ou negar a sua existência, pelo que muitas vezes são o próprio ponto de partida para a investigação científica do Jesus histórico.[7] Bart D. Ehrman refere que a crucificação de Jesus sob a ordem de Pôncio Pilatos é o elemento biográfico de Jesus sobre o qual há maior certeza.[8] John Dominic Crossan e Richard G. Watts afirmam que a crucificação de Jesus demonstra o mesmo nível de certeza como qualquer outro facto histórico consensual.[9] Paul R. Eddy e Gregory A. Boyd referem que a confirmação da crucificação fora dos meios cristãos está seguramente determinada.[10]
  5. Numa revisão em 2011 do estado da arte da investigação contemporânea, Bart Ehrman escreveu: "Com certeza existiu, já que praticamente qualquer investigador clássico competente concorda, seja ou não cristão".[11]Richard A. Burridge afirma: "Há aqueles que argumentam que Jesus é produto da imaginação da Igreja e que nunca houve qualquer Jesus. Devo dizer que não conheço nenhum académico de renome que ainda afirme isso".[12] Robert M. Price também não acredita que Jesus tenha existido, mas reconhece que o seu ponto de vista é contrário à maioria dos académicos.[13] James D.G. Dunn chama às teorias da inexistência de Jesus "uma tese completamente morta", [14] e Michael Grant (um classicista) escreveu em 1977: "em anos recentes, nenhum académico sério se aventurou a postular a não historicidade de Jesus, e os poucos que o fazem não tiveram qualquer capacidade de contrariar as evidências no sentido contrário, muito mais abundantes e fortes.[15] Robert E. Van Voorst declara que os académicos bíblicos e historiadores clássicos encaram as teorias da inexistência de Jesus como completamente refutadas[16]
  6. O Novo Testamento afirma em três passagens diferentes que Jesus era judeu ("Ioudaios" no grego do Novo Testamento), embora o próprio Jesus nunca se refira a si como tal. Em Mateus 2:, os Reis Magos referem-se a Jesus como "Rei dos Judeus" (basileus ton ioudaion). É também referido como judeu em João 4: pela samaritana no poço, no momento em que abandona a Judeia, e pelos romanos durante o episódio da Paixão, em todos os quatro evangelhos, os quais usam a frase "Rei dos Judeus".[271]
  7. Posteriormente ao período apostólico, decorreram na Igreja primitiva vários debates acesos e muitas vezes politizados sobre vários temas relacionados entre si. A cristologia era um dos pontos principais destes debates, sendo debatida em cada um dos primeiros sete concílios ecuménicos.
  8. Flávio Josefo afirma em A Guerra dos Judeus (escrito cinco anos depois do cerco, em 75 d.C.) que Jerusalém fora de tal forma destruída que quem ali chegasse dificilmente acreditaria que alguma vez fora habitada.[366] E após o que restava ter sido convertido no assentamento romano de Élia Capitolina, foi impedida a entrada aos Judeus.[365]
  9. Existem conclusões bastantes polarizadas sobre o Sudário de Turim.[374] De acordo com o antigo diretor da revista Nature, Philip Ball, "é justo afirmar que, apesar dos exames definitivos realizados em 1988, o estatuto do Sudário de Turim é mais turvo do que nunca. A própria natureza da imagem e como foi fixada no tecido permanecem um mistério profundo".[375]

Referências

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  2. Rahner 2004, p. 732.
  3. Sanders 1993, pp. 10–11.
  4. Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology, rev. ed. [S.l.]: Hendrickson Publishers. p. 319. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4 
  5. Brown, Raymond E. (1977). The birth of the Messiah: a commentary on the infancy narratives in Matthew and Luke. [S.l.]: Doubleday. p. 513. ISBN 978-0-385-05907-7 
  6. a b Humphreys, Colin J.; Waddington, W.G. (1992). «The Jewish Calendar, a Lunar Eclipse and the Date of Christ's Crucifixion» (PDF). Tyndale Bulletin. 43 (2): 340 
  7. a b c d Dunn 2003, p. 339.
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  9. Crossan & Watts 1999, p. 96.
  10. Eddy & Boyd 2007, p. 173.
  11. Ehrman, Bart (2011). Forged: writing in the name of God – Why the Bible's Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are. [S.l.]: HarperCollins. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6 
  12. Burridge, Richard A.; Gould, Graham (2004). Jesus Now and Then. [S.l.]: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8028-0977-3 
  13. Price, Robert M. (2009). «Jesus at the Vanishing Point». In: Beilby, James K.; Eddy, Paul R. The Historical Jesus: Five Views. InterVarsity. pp. 55, 61. ISBN 978-0-8308-7853-6 
  14. Sykes, Stephen W. (2007). «Paul's understanding of the death of Jesus». Sacrifice and Redemption. Cambridge University Press. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-521-04460-8 
  15. a b Grant, Michael (1977). Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels. [S.l.]: Scribner's. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-684-14889-2 
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  171. a b Evans 2005, p. 49.
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