Zagreb

Zagreb
Grad Zagreb
City of Zagreb
St. Mark's Square
Croatian National Theater in Zagreb
Croatian State Archives
Highrise buildings
Zagreb Tram
Art Pavilion
Zagreb is located in Croatia
Zagreb
Zagreb
Location of Zagreb in Croatia
Zagreb is located in Europe
Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb (Europe)
Coordinates: 45°49′N 15°59′E / 45°49′N 15°59′E / 45.817; 15.983Croatia
CountyFlag of Zagreb.svg City of Zagreb
RC diocese1094
Free royal city1242
Unified1850
Subdivisions17 city districts
218 local committees
(70 settlements)
Government
 • TypeMayor-Council
 • MayorMilan Bandić (BM 365)
 • City Assembly
Area
 • City641 km2 (247 sq mi)
 • Urban
202.4 km2 (78.1 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,719 km2 (1,436 sq mi)
Elevation158 m (518 ft)
Highest elevation
1,035 m (3,396 ft)
Lowest elevation
122 m (400 ft)
Population
 (2011 census)[3][4]
 • City790,017
 • Estimate 
(2019)[5]
812,635
 • Density4,055/km2 (10,500/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,228,941
 • Metro density330/km2 (860/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Zagrepčanin (hr)
Zagreber (en)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
HR-10 000, HR-10 010, HR-10 020, HR-10 040, HR-10 090
Area code+385 1
Vehicle registrationZG
GDP (PPP)2017
 - Total$25 billion / €22.7 billion
 - Per capita$32,404 / €28,237
HDI (2017)0.890[6]very high
Websitezagreb.hr

Zagreb (b/;[7][8] Croatian pronunciation: [zǎːɡreb] (About this soundlisten))[9] is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.[10] It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately 122 m (400 ft) above sea level.[11][12] The estimated population of the city in 2018 was 820 678.[13] The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is about 1.2 million, approximately a quarter of the total population of Croatia.

Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from the Roman times to the present day. The oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, in today's Ščitarjevo.[14][15][16][17] The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal town in 1242.[18][19][20][21][22] In 1851 Zagreb had its first mayor,[23][24][25][26] Janko Kamauf.

Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county (but separated from Zagreb County),[27][28][29][30] and is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts.[31][32][33] Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme[34][35][36] and Sesvete[37][38][39] districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica mountain,[40] making the city's geographical image rather diverse. The city extends over 30 kilometres (19 miles) east-west and around 20 kilometres (12 miles) north-south.[41][42]

The transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific, and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia.[43][44][45] Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, and almost all government ministries.[46][47][48] Almost all of the largest Croatian companies, media, and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road, rail and air networks of Croatia. It is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums, sporting, and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are high-tech industries and the service sector.

Name

Sculpture representing the Triune Kingdom
Ante Starčević Square
The Golden Bull of 1242, whereby King Béla IV proclaimed Gradec a royal free city

The etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese since the 12th century, and was increasingly used for the city in the 17th century.[49] The name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, mentioned as Zagrabiensem episcopatum.[50] The older form of the name is Zagrab. The modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson. An even older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag (recorded from c. 1200 and in use until the 18th century). For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian. The same form is reflected in a number of Hungarian toponyms, such as Csepreg.[51]

The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word *grębъ which means hill, uplift. (However, note Serbo-Croatian brȇg < Proto-Slavic *bergъ, which also means '(smaller) hill', and za brȇg 'to or toward the hill' for the seemingly metathesized variant in Hungarian, Zabrag – modified from assumed *Zabreg because of Hungarian vowel harmony? –, mentioned above.) An Old Croatian reconstructed name *Zagrębъ is manifested through the German name of the city Agram.[52]

The name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period; this name has been classified as "probably of Roman origin"[53] but according to Décsy (1990) it could be an Austrian German reanalysis of *Zugram. [51] In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Agranum (the name of an unrelated Arabian city in Strabo), Zagrabia or Mons Graecensis (also Mons Crecensis, in reference to Grič (Gradec)).

In Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb za-grab-, meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which Augustin Kažotić (c. 1260–1323) is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water.[54] In another legend,[55][56][57][58][59] a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from Manduševac well (nowadays a fountain in Ban Jelačić Square), using the imperative: zagrabi, Mando! ("Scoop, Manda!").[60]