Yang Wu


Common languagesMiddle Chinese
• 907–908
Yang Wo
• 908–921
Yang Longyan
• 921–937
Yang Pu
Historical eraFive Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
• Foundation of the State of Wu under Tang rule
• Fall of the Tang dynasty
June 1 907
• Yang Longyan proclaimed himself King and inaugurated a new era name
• Yang Pu acceded the throne as Emperor
November 29, 927
• Ended by the Southern Tang
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tang dynasty
Southern Tang
Today part ofChina

Wu (), also referred to as Huainan (淮南), Hongnong (弘農), Southern Wu (南吳), or Yang Wu (楊吳), was one of the Ten Kingdoms in eastern China which was in existence from 907 to 937. Its capital was Jiangdu Municipality (江都) (modern Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province).

Some historians consider Wu to have begun in 902, when Yang Xingmi was named Prince of Wu by the Tang dynasty. All three rulers of Wu after 907 (when the Tang dynasty collapsed) were Yang Xingmi's sons. The first ruler Yang Wo was murdered by Xu Wen and Zhang Hao, and his two brothers after him were effectively puppets dominated by Xu Wen at first, and later Xu Wen's adopted son Xu Zhigao (Li Bian) who in 937 usurped power to establish Southern Tang. Yang Pu, the last ruler, was the only one to claim the title of Emperor; the other rulers were kings or princes.


The founder of Wu, Yang Xingmi, started his career as a volunteer soldier before seizing power in his home prefecture Luzhou in a military coup. The weak Tang court could only confirm his position. In 887 the governor of Huainan, Gao Pian, was captured by Bi Shiduo. Xingmi defeated Shiduo and captured the provincial capital Yangzhou later that year, but by then Pian had been put to death by Shiduo. Another rebel leader, Sun Ru had Shiduo killed and absorbed his forces. Yang Xingmi was forced to abandon Yangzhou and retreat to Luzhou. With Luzhou as his base, Xingmi increased his power by seizing neighbouring prefectures until he could recapture Yangzhou in 892. For this act, the Tang court granted him the military governorship of Huainan.

While still nominally loyal to the Tang dynasty, rival warlords were now carving out their own statelets. Yang Xingmi clashed with Zhu Wen of Later Liang in the north and Qian Liu of Wuyue in the south, successfully defending his territory. In 902 Yang Xingmi was named Prince of Wu by Emperor Zhaozong of Tang.