Wiesbaden

Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden Montage.jpg
Flag of Wiesbaden
Flag
Coat of arms of Wiesbaden
Coat of arms
Location of Wiesbaden within Hessen
Hessen WI.png
Wiesbaden is located in Germany
Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden is located in Hesse
Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Coordinates: 50°04′57″N 08°14′24″E / 50°04′57″N 08°14′24″E / 50.08250; 8.24000(2017-12-31)[1]
 • Total278,654
 • Density1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
65183–65207
55246 (Mainz-Kostheim)
55252 (Mainz-Kastel)
Dialling codes0611, 06122, 06127, 06134
wiesbaden.de
Aerial view of Wiesbaden

Wiesbaden (German pronunciation: [ˈviːsˌbaːdn̩] (About this soundlisten)) is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. As of January 2018, it had 289,544 inhabitants,[2] plus approximately 19,000[3] United States citizens (mostly associated with the United States Army). The Wiesbaden urban area is home to approx. 560,000 people.

The city, together with nearby Frankfurt am Main, Darmstadt, and Mainz, is part of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region, a metropolitan area with a combined population of about 5.8 million people.

Wiesbaden is one of the oldest spa towns in Europe. Its name translates to "meadow baths", a reference to its famed hot springs. It is also internationally famous for its architecture and climate—it is also called the "Nice of the North" in reference to the city in France.[4] At one time, Wiesbaden boasted 26 hot springs. As of 2008, fourteen of the springs are still flowing.[5]

In 1970, the town hosted the tenth Hessentag Landesfest (English: Hessian Day, a state festival).

The city is considered the tenth richest in Germany (2014) boasting 110.3% of the national average gross domestic product in 2017. The average annual buying power per citizen is €24,783.[6]

Geographical setting

Satellite view of Wiesbaden (north of the Rhine) and Mainz

Wiesbaden is situated on the right (northern) bank of the Rhine, below the confluence of the Main, where the Rhine's main direction changes from north to west. The city is across the Rhine from Mainz, the capital of the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Frankfurt am Main is located about 38 kilometres (23.6 mi) east. To the north of the city are the Taunus Mountains, which trend in a northeasterly direction.

The city center, the Stadtmitte, is located in the north-easternmost part of the Upper Rhine Valley at the spurs of the Taunus mountains, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the Rhine. The landscape is formed by a wide lowland between the Taunus heights in the north, the Bierstadter Höhe and the Hainerberg in the east, the Mosbacher Mountain in the south, and the Schiersteiner Mountain in the west, an offshoot of the Taunus range. The downtown is drained only by the narrow valley of the Salzbach, a tributary of the Rhine, on the eastern flanks of the Mosbacher Mountain. The city's main railway line and the Mainz road (Mainzer Straße) follow this valley. Several other streams drain into the Salzbach within the city center: the Wellritzbach, the Kesselbach, the Schwarzbach, the Dambach, and the Tennelbach, as well as the outflow of many thermal and mineral springs in the Kurhaus (spa) district. Above the city center, the Salzbach is better known as the Rambach.

View of Wiesbaden from the Topographia Hassiae by Matthäus Merian in 1655.

The highest point of the Wiesbaden municipality is located northwest of the city center near the summit of the Hohe Wurzel, with an elevation of 608 metres (1,995 ft) above sea level. The lowest point is the harbour entrance of Schierstein at 83 metres (272 ft) above sea level. The central square (the Schlossplatz, or palace square) is at an elevation of 115 metres (377 ft).

Wiesbaden covers an area of 204 km2 (79 sq mi). It is 17.6 kilometres (10.9 mi) from north to south and 19.7 kilometres (12.2 mi) from west to east. In the north are vast forest areas, which cover 27.4% of the urban area. In the west and east are vineyards and agricultural land, which cover 31.1% of the area. Of the municipality's 79 kilometres (49.1 mi)-long border, the Rhine makes up 10.3 kilometres (6.4 mi).

Climate

Wiesbaden has a temperate-oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) with relatively cold winters and warm summers. Its average annual temperature is 9.8 °C (49.6 °F), with monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1.0 °C (33.8 °F) in January to 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) in July.

Climate data for Wiesbaden
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4
(39)
6
(43)
11
(52)
15
(59)
20
(68)
23
(73)
25
(77)
25
(77)
20
(68)
14
(57)
8
(46)
5
(41)
14.7
(58.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
2.2
(36.0)
5.5
(41.9)
9.4
(48.9)
13.8
(56.8)
17.0
(62.6)
18.6
(65.5)
18.0
(64.4)
14.6
(58.3)
10.0
(50.0)
4.9
(40.8)
2.1
(35.8)
9.8
(49.6)
Average low °C (°F) −1
(30)
−1
(30)
2
(36)
5
(41)
9
(48)
12
(54)
14
(57)
14
(57)
11
(52)
7
(45)
3
(37)
1
(34)
6.3
(43.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
46
(1.8)
41
(1.6)
55
(2.2)
68
(2.7)
66
(2.6)
63
(2.5)
49
(1.9)
49
(1.9)
57
(2.2)
55
(2.2)
638
(25.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 10 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 8 8 10 10 111
Source: Sonnenlaender.de[7]