Timurid dynasty

  • House of Timur
  • Timurid
Timur reconstruction03.jpg
Parent houseBarlas
Country
Founded1370
FounderTamerlane
Current headMirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad Javaid Jah Bahadur
Final rulerBahadur Shah II
Titles
Religion
Deposition
  • 1507 (Timurid Empire)
  • 1857 (Mughal Empire)

The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim[1] dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol origin[2][3][4][5] descended from the warlord Timur (also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law",[6] as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan,[7][full citation needed] founder of the Mongol Empire. Members of the Timurid dynasty were strongly influenced by the Persian culture[2][8] and established two significant empires in history, the Timurid Empire (1370–1507) based in Persia and Central Asia and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) based in the Indian subcontinent.

Origins

The origin of the Timurid dynasty goes back to the Mongol tribe known as Barlas, who were remnants of the original Mongol army of Genghis Khan,[2][9][10] founder of the Mongol Empire. After the Mongol conquest of Central Asia, the Barlas settled in what is today southern Kazakhstan, from Shymkent to Taraz and Almaty, which then came to be known for a time as Moghulistan – "Land of Mongols" in Persian [reference needed] – and intermingled to a considerable degree with the local Turkic and Turkic-speaking population, so that at the time of Timur's reign the Barlas had become thoroughly Turkicized in terms of language and habits.

Additionally, by adopting Islam, the Central Asian Turks and Mongols adopted the Persian literary and high culture[11] which had dominated Central Asia since the early days of Islamic influence. Persian literature was instrumental in the assimilation of the Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamic courtly culture.[12]