Tatars

Tatars
Tатарлар
Total population
c. 6,800,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Russia (excluding the Republic of Crimea)5,319,877[citation needed]
 Uzbekistan477,875[citation needed]
 Ukraine (including Crimea)319,377[citation needed]
 Kazakhstan240,000[citation needed]
 Turkey175,500[citation needed]
 Turkmenistan36,355[citation needed]
 Kyrgyzstan28,334[citation needed]
 Azerbaijan25,900[citation needed]
 Romania20,282[2]
 Mongolia18,567[citation needed]
 Israel15,000[citation needed]
 Belarus7,300[citation needed]
 France7,000[citation needed]
 Lithuania6,800-7,200[citation needed]
 China5,000[citation needed]
 Canada4,825[3]
(Includes those of mixed ancestry)
 Estonia1,981[citation needed]
 Poland1,916[citation needed]
 Bulgaria1,803[citation needed]
 Finland1,000[citation needed]
 Japan600-2,000[4]
 Australia500+[5]
 Czech Republic300+[6]
  Switzerland150[7]
Languages
Tatar, Russian
Religion
Predominantly Sunni Islam;
Eastern Orthodox and shamanist minorities[8]
Related ethnic groups
Other Turkic peoples (particularly other descendants of Bulgars such as the Chuvash people)

The Tatars (z/; Tatar: татарлар; Russian: татары) are Turkic ethnic group[9] native to Tatarstan and wider Volga region. They speak Tatar, a Kipchak Turkic language. The vast majority of Tatars today reside in post-Soviet countries, primarily in Russia, Uzbekistan and Ukraine.

The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺‎, Ta-tar. Historically, the term Tatars (or Tartars) was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass then known as Tartary, which was dominated by various mostly Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More recently, however, the term has come to refer more narrowly to related ethnic groups who refer to themselves as Tatars or who speak languages that are commonly referred to as Tatar, namely Tatar by Tatars and Crimean Tatar by Crimean Tatars.

The Mongol Empire, established under Genghis Khan in 1206, subjugated the Tatars during Genghis's unification of the various steppe tribes. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255), the Mongols moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'.[10]

The largest group by far that the Russians have called "Tatars" are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region (Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), who for this reason are often also simply known as "Tatars". They compose 53% of the population in Tatarstan. Their language is known as the Tatar language. As of 2002 they had an estimated population around 5 million in Russia as a whole.

Name

Ottoman miniature of the Szigetvár campaign showing Ottoman troops and Tatars as vanguard

The name "Tatar" likely originated amongst the nomadic Mongolic-speaking Tatar confederation in the north-eastern Gobi desert in the 5th century.[11] The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul Tigin (732 CE) and Bilge Khagan (735 CW) monuments as ‎𐱃𐱃𐰺⁚𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣‎⁚𐰆𐱃𐰕‎, Otuz Tatar Bodun, 'Thirty Tatar clan'[12] and ‎𐱃𐱃𐰺⁚𐰸𐱃𐰕‎, Tokuz Tatar, 'Nine Tatar'[13][14][15][16] referring to the Tatar confederation.

Tatar became a name for populations of the former Golden Horde in Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Crimean, Astrakhan, Qasim, and Siberian Khanates. The form Tartar has its origins in either Latin or French, coming to Western European languages from Turkish and the Persian language (tātār, "mounted messenger"). From the beginning, the extra r was present in the Western forms, and according to the Oxford English Dictionary this was most likely due to an association with Tartarus.[17][18]

The Persian word is first recorded in the 13th century in reference to the hordes of Genghis Khan and is of unknown origin, according to OED "said to be" ultimately from tata, a name of the Mongols for themselves. The Arabic word for Tatars is تتار. Tatars themselves wrote their name as تاتار‎ or طاطار‎. The Chinese term for Tatars was 韃靼; Dádá, especially after the end of the Yuan period (14th century), but also recorded as a term for Mongolian-speaking peoples of the northern steppes during the Tang period (8th century).[19] The name Tatars was used as an alternative term for the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which these Tatar people belonged.

Russians and Europeans used the name Tatar to denote Mongols as well as Turkic peoples under Mongol rule (especially in the Golden Horde). Later, it applied to any Turkic or Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians. Eventually, however, the name became associated with the Turkic Muslims of Ukraine and Russia, namely the descendants of Muslim Volga Bulgars, Kipchaks, Cumans, and Turkicized Mongols or Turko-Mongols (Nogais), as well as other Turkic-speaking peoples (Siberian Tatars, Qasim Tatars, and Mishar Tatars)[20][21][22][23][24] in the territory of the former Russian Empire (and as such generally includes all Northwestern Turkic-speaking peoples).[25]

Nowadays Tatar is usually used to refer to the people, but Tartar is still almost always used for derived terms such as tartar sauce, steak tartare, and the Tartar missile.[26]

All Turkic peoples living within the Russian Empire were named Tatar (as a Russian exonym). Some of these populations still use Tatar as a self-designation, others do not.[27]

The name Tatar is also an endonym to a number of peoples of Siberia and Russian Far East, namely the Khakas people.