Sweden

Motto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a]
"For Sweden – With the Times"[1]
Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b]
Thou ancient, thou free

Royal anthemKungssången
Song of the King
EU-Sweden (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Sweden.svg
Location of Sweden (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Stockholm
59°21′N 18°4′E / 59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.350; 18.067Official languagesSwedish[c]
Official minority languages:[c]
Finnish
Meänkieli
Sami
Romani
YiddishEthnic groups
No official statistics[d]Demonym(s)GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Carl XVI GustafAndreas NorlénStefan LöfvenLegislatureRiksdagHistory
• A unified Swedish kingdom established
By the early 12th century
• Part of Kalmar Union
1397–15234 November 1814 – August 1905[2]1 January 1995Area
• Total
450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi) (55th)
• Water (%)
8.7Population
• May 2019 census
Increase 10,272,518[3] (89th)
• Density
23/km2 (59.6/sq mi) (198th)GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$567 billion[4] (36th)
• Per capita
$54,474[4] (17th)GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$563 billion[4] (23rd)
• Per capita
$54,135[4] (11th)Gini (2017)Negative increase 28.0[5]
lowHDI (2017)Increase 0.933[6]
very high · 7thCurrencySwedish krona (SEK)Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)Date formatYYYY-MM-DDDriving sideright[e]Calling code+46ISO 3166 codeSEInternet TLD.se[f]
  1. ^ "För Sverige – I tiden" has been adopted by Carl XVI Gustaf as his personal motto.
  2. ^ Du gamla, Du fria has never been officially adopted as national anthem, but is so by convention.
  3. ^ Since 1 July 2009.[7][8] Five other languages are officially recognised as minority languages:[9] Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status.
  4. ^ On 31 December 2012, approximately 27% of the population had a full or partial foreign background.[10][11]
  5. ^ Since 3 September 1967.
  6. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Sweden (Swedish: Sverige [ˈsværjɛ] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: About this soundKonungariket Sverige ), is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe.[12] It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund Strait. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. The capital city is Stockholm. Sweden has a total population of 10.3 million[3] of which 2.5 million have a foreign background.[13] It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi) and the highest urban concentration is in the central and southern half of the country.

Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in general very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. In spite of the high latitude, Sweden often has warm continental summers, being located in between the North Atlantic, the Baltic Sea and the vast Eurasian Russian landmass. The general climate and environment varies significantly from the south and north due to the vast latitudal difference and much of Sweden has reliably cold and snowy winters. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested and includes a portion of the Scandinavian Mountains.

Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats (Swedish Götar) and Swedes (Svear) and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population,[14][15] the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture, finances and languages. This led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397,[16] which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and eventually the Swedish Empire was formed. This became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809. The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into a personal union, which peacefully dissolved in 1905. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs.[17] Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 openly moved towards cooperation with NATO.

Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy, with Legislative power vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. It is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. It has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks very highly in quality of life, health, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality, prosperity and human development.[18][19][20] Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum. It is also a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Etymology

The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes" (Old Norse Svíþjóð, Latin Suetidi). This word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas (Old Norse Sviar, Latin Suiones). The Swedish name Sverige (a compound of the words Svea and rike, with lenition of the consonant [k], first recorded in the cognate Swēorice in Beowulf)[21] literally means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland.

Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, and the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi (Finnish) and Rootsi (Estonian) are used, names commonly considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, Uppland, who were known as the Rus', and through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia.

The etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own",[22] referring to one's own Germanic tribe.