Sri Lanka

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

  • ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhala)
  • Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya
  • இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil)
  • Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasu
Anthem: "Sri Lanka Matha"
(English: "Mother Sri Lanka")
Location of Sri Lanka
Location of Sri Lanka
CapitalSri Jayawardenepura Kotte
6°56′N 79°52′E / 6°56′N 79°52′E / 6.933; 79.867
Largest cityColombo
Official languagesSinhala
Recognised languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
74.9% Sinhalese
11.2% Sri Lankan Tamils
9.2% Sri Lankan Moors
4.2% Indian Tamils
0.5% Others (incl. Burghers, Malays, Veddas, Chinese, Africans)
70.2% Buddhism
12.6% Hinduism
9.7% Islam
7.4% Christianity
0.1% Other/None
Demonym(s)Sri Lankan
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Maithripala Sirisena
Ranil Wickremesinghe
Karu Jayasuriya
Nalin Perera
• Dominion
4 February 1948
• Republic
22 May 1972
7 September 1978
• Total
65,610 km2 (25,330 sq mi) (120th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
21,670,000[3] (57th)
• 2012 census
20,277,597[4] (57th)
• Density
327/km2 (846.9/sq mi) (43rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$292.793 billion[5] (61st)
• Per capita
$13,500[5] (91st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$92.504 billion[5] (66th)
• Per capita
$4,265[5] (109th)
Gini (2016)39.8[6]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.770[7]
high · 76th
CurrencySri Lankan rupee (LKR)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (SLST)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • yyyy-mm-dd
Driving sideleft
Calling code+94
ISO 3166 codeLK
Internet TLD

Sri Lanka (UK: -/, US: ə/ (About this soundlisten);[8][9] Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා Śrī Laṃkā; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo.

Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years.[10] It has a rich cultural heritage and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, the Pāli Canon, date back to the Fourth Buddhist council in 29 BC.[11][12] Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road.[13][14][15]

Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon (n/, US also n/). A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, which was granted in 1948; the country became a republic and adopted its current name in 1972. Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 26-year civil war, which ended decisively when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in 2009.[16]

The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system. It has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), and a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index (HDI), with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations.[7] The Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion. Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution.[17]

The island is home to many cultures, languages and ethnicities. The majority of the population are from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have also played an influential role in the island's history. Moors, Burghers, Malays, Chinese, and the indigenous Vedda are also established groups on the island.[18]


In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. According to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni ("copper-red hands" or "copper-red earth"), because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area.[19][20] In Hindu mythology, such as the Ramayana, the island was referred to as Lankā ("Island"). The Tamil term Eelam (Tamil: ஈழம், romanized: īḻam), was used to designate the whole island in Sangam literature.[21][22] The island was known under Chola rule as Mummudi Cholamandalam ("realm of the three crowned Cholas").[23]

Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanā (Ancient Greek: Ταπροβανᾶ) or Taprobanē (Ταπροβανῆ)[24] from the word Tambapanni. The Persians and Arabs referred to it as Sarandīb (the origin of the word "serendipity") from Cerentivu[25] or Siṃhaladvīpaḥ.[26][27] Ceilão, the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese Empire when it arrived in 1505,[28] was transliterated into English as Ceylon.[29] As a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon; it achieved independence as the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948.

The country is now known in Sinhala as Śrī Laṃkā (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා) and in Tamil as Ilaṅkai (Tamil: இலங்கை, IPA: [iˈlaŋɡai]). In 1972, its formal name was changed to "Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka". Later, in 1978, it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka".[30] As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority.[31]