Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain
Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición
Seal for the Tribunal in Spain
|Established||1 November 1478|
|Disbanded||15 July 1834|
|Seats||Consisted of a |
|Grand Inquisitor and Suprema designated by the crown|
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Spanish: Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by
The Inquisition was originally intended primarily to identify
The Spanish Inquisition is often cited in popular literature and history as an example of religious intolerance and repression. Some historians have come to conclude that many of the charges levied against the Inquisition are exaggerated, and are a result of the
Despite its early implantation, the Papal Inquisition was greatly resisted within the Crown of Aragon by both population and monarchs. With time, its importance was diluted, and, by the middle of the fifteenth century, it was almost forgotten although still there according to the law.
Regarding the living conditions of minorities, the kings of Aragon and other monarchies imposed some discriminatory taxation of religious minorities, so false conversions were a way of tax evasion.
In addition to said discriminatory legislation, Aragon had laws specifically targeted at protecting minorities. For example, crusades attacking Jewish or Muslim subjects of the King of Aragon while on their way to fight in the reconquest were punished with death by hanging.
Up to the 14th century, the census and weddings records show an absolute lack of concern with avoiding intermarriage or blood mixture. Said laws were now common in most of central Europe. Both the Roman Inquisition and neighbouring Christian powers showed discomfort with Aragonese law and lack of concern with ethnicity, but to little effect.
High-ranking officials of Jewish religion were not as common as in Castile, but were not unheard of either.
There was never a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition in
During the Middle Ages, in Castile, heresy was paid little to no attention by the Catholic ruling class or by the population. Castile did not see the proliferation of anti-Jew pamphlets like England and France did during the 13th and 14th century, and those which have been found had modified, watered down versions of the original stories. Jews and Muslims were tolerated and generally allowed to follow their traditional customs in domestic matters.
The legislation regarding Muslims and Jews in Castilian territory varied greatly, becoming more intolerant during the period of great instability and dynastic wars that occurred by the end of the 14th century. The Castilian law is particularly difficult to summarize since due to the model of the free
Royal Villas mayors and the population of border areas had the right to create their own
During most of the medieval period intermarriage with converts was allowed and encouraged. The intellectual cooperation between religions was the norm in Castile. Some examples are the
A tightening of the laws to protect the right of Jews to collect loans during the Medieval Crisis, was one of the causes of the revolt against
The kingdom had serious tensions with Rome regarding the Church's attempts to extend its authority into it. A focus of conflict was Castilian resistance to truly abandon the