Seville

Seville

Sevilla
Plaza Virgen de los Reyes, Seville, Spain - Sep 2009.jpg
Gold Tower Guadalquivir Seville Tower Arabic.jpg
Jardines de los Reales Alcázares - panoramio.jpg
Metropol Parasol de la Encarnación - Sevilla.jpg
Puente de Triana iluminado.JPG
Monumental Plaza de España de Sevilla.jpg
Flag of Seville
Flag
Coat of arms of Seville
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Sev
Motto(s): 
NO8DO ([Ella] No me ha dejado – [She] has not abandoned me)
Seville is located in Andalusia
Seville
Seville
Seville is located in Spain
Seville
Seville
Seville is located in Europe
Seville
Seville
Coordinates: 37°23′N 5°59′W / 37°23′N 5°59′W / 37.39; -5.99

Seville (l/; Spanish: Sevilla [seˈβiʎa] (About this soundlisten)) is a Spanish city, the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situated on the lower reaches of the Guadalquivir River, in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Seville has a municipal population of about 690,000 as of 2016, and a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the largest city in Andalusia, the fourth-largest city in Spain and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres (2 sq mi), contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies. The Seville harbour, located about 80 kilometres (50 miles) from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. Seville experiences high temperatures in the Summer, with daily maximums routinely above 35 °C (95 °F) in July and August.

Seville was founded as the Roman city of Hispalis. It became known as Ishbiliyya after the Muslim conquest in 712. During the Muslim rule in Spain, Seville came under the jurisdiction of the Caliphate of Córdoba before becoming the independent Taifa of Seville; later it was ruled by the Muslim Almoravids and the Almohads until finally being incorporated into the Christian Kingdom of Castile under Ferdinand III in 1248.[3] After the discovery of the Americas, Seville became one of the economic centres of the Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade and the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) wielded its power, opening a Golden Age of arts and literature. In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan departed from Seville for the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Coinciding with the Baroque period of European history, the 17th century in Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of the city's culture; then began a gradual economic and demographic decline as silting in the Guadalquivir forced the trade monopoly to relocate to the nearby port of Cádiz.

The 20th century in Seville saw the tribulations of the Spanish Civil War, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and Expo '92, and the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia.

Name

Etymology

Hisbaal is the oldest name for Seville. It appears to have originated during the Phoenician colonisation of the Tartessian culture in south-western Iberia and it refers to the God Baal.[4] According to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the ancient name was Spal, and it meant "lowland" in the Phoenician language (similar to the Hebrew Shfela and cognate with Arabic Asfal أسفل).[5][6] During Roman rule, the name was Latinised as Hispal and later as Hispalis. After the Umayyad invasion, this name was adapted into Arabic as Ishbiliyya (Arabic: إشبيلية‎): since p does not exist in Arabic, it was replaced by b; the Latin place-name suffix -is was replaced by its Arabic equivalent -iyya, and stressed a /æ/ turned into i /i/, due to the phonetic phenomenon called imāla.[7]

The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos (feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city.

Motto

NO8DO is the official motto of Seville, popularly believed to be a rebus signifying the Spanish No me ha dejado, meaning "She [Seville] has not abandoned me". The phrase, pronounced with synalepha as [no ma ðeˈxaðo], is spelled with an eight in the middle representing the word madeja [maˈðexa] "skein [of wool]". Legend states that the title was given by King Alfonso X, who was resident in the city's Alcázar and supported by the citizens when his son, later Sancho IV of Castile, tried to usurp the throne from him.

The emblem is present on Seville's municipal flag, and features on city property such as manhole covers, and Christopher Columbus's tomb in the Cathedral.