Rumi

Rumi
Mevlana Statue, Buca.jpg
Statue of Rumi in Buca
TitleMevlânâ, Mawlānā,[1] Mevlevî, Mawlawī
Personal
Born30 September 1207
Died17 December 1273 (age 66)
Resting placeTomb of Mevlana Rumi, Mevlana Museum, Konya, Turkey
ReligionIslam
EthnicityPersian
EraIslamic Golden Age
RegionKhwarezmian Empire (Balkh: 1207–1212, 1213–1217; Samarkand: 1212–1213)[5][6]
Sultanate of Rum (Malatya: 1217–1219; Akşehir: 1219–1222; Larende: 1222–1228; Konya: 1228–1273)[5]
DenominationSunni[7]
JurisprudenceHanafi
Main interest(s)Sufi poetry, Hanafi jurisprudence
Notable idea(s)Sufi whirling, Muraqaba
Notable work(s)Mathnawī-ī ma'nawī, Dīwān-ī Shams-ī Tabrīzī, Fīhi mā fīhi
TariqaMevlevi
Senior posting

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (Persian: جلال‌الدین محمد رومی‎), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century Persian[8][1][9] poet, faqih, Islamic scholar, theologian, and Sufi mystic originally from Greater Khorasan.[9][10] Rumi's influence transcends national borders and ethnic divisions: Iranians, Tajiks, Turks, Greeks, Pashtuns, other Central Asian Muslims, and the Muslims of South Asia have greatly appreciated his spiritual legacy for the past seven centuries.[11] His poems have been widely translated into many of the world's languages and transposed into various formats. Rumi has been described as the "most popular poet"[12] and the "best selling poet" in the United States.[13][14]

Rumi's works are written mostly in Persian, but occasionally he also used Turkish, Arabic, and Greek[15][16][17] in his verse.[18][19] His Masnavi (Mathnawi), composed in Konya, is considered one of the greatest poems of the Persian language.[20][21] His works are widely read today in their original language across Greater Iran and the Persian-speaking world.[22][23] Translations of his works are very popular, most notably in Turkey, Azerbaijan, the United States, and South Asia.[24] His poetry has influenced not only Persian literature, but also the literary traditions of the Ottoman Turkish, Chagatai, Urdu and Pashto languages.

Name

He is most commonly called Rumi in English. His full name is Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī (Persian: جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى‎) or Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی). Jalal ad-Din is an Arabic name meaning "Glory of the Faith". Balkhī and Rūmī are his nisbas, meaning, respectively, "from Balkh" and "from Rûm" ('Roman,' what European history now calls Byzantine, Anatolia[25]). According to the authoritative Rumi biographer Franklin Lewis of the University of Chicago, "[t]he Anatolian peninsula which had belonged to the Byzantine, or eastern Roman empire, had only relatively recently been conquered by Muslims and even when it came to be controlled by Turkish Muslim rulers, it was still known to Arabs, Persians and Turks as the geographical area of Rum. As such, there are a number of historical personages born in or associated with Anatolia known as Rumi, a word borrowed from Arabic literally meaning 'Roman,' in which context Roman refers to subjects of the Byzantine Empire or simply to people living in or things associated with Anatolia."[26]

He is widely known by the sobriquet Mawlānā/Molānā[1][5] (Persian: مولاناPersian pronunciation: [moulɒːnɒ]) in Iran and popularly known as Mevlânâ in Turkey. Mawlānā (مولانا‎) is a term of Arabic origin, meaning "our master".

The term مولوی Mawlawī/Mowlavi (Persian) and Mevlevi (Turkish), also of Arabic origin, meaning "my master", is also frequently used for him.[27]