Romania

Romania

România  (Romanian)
Anthem: "Deșteaptă-te, române!"
(English: "Awaken thee, Romanian!")
EU-Romania (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Romania.svg
Location of Romania (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Bucharest
44°25′N 26°06′E / 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417; 26.100
Official languagesRomanian[1]
Recognised minority
languages[2]
Ethnic groups
(2011[3])
Demonym(s)Romanian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential
republic
• President
Klaus Iohannis
Viorica Dăncilă (Acting)
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Establishment history
• First Romanian polities
c. 895 / 1247a
1330
c. 1360
1570
• First common rule under Michael the Brave
1600
24 January 1859
9 May 1877 / 1878c
14 March 1881
1918 / 1920e
Area
• Total
238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi) (81st)
• Water (%)
3
Population
• 2019 estimate
Decrease 19,401,658[4] (59th)
• 2011 census
20,121,641[3] (58th)
• Density
84.4/km2 (218.6/sq mi) (117th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $546.586 billion[5] (40th)
• Per capita
Increase $27,998[5] (54th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $243.698 billion[5] (46th)
• Per capita
Increase $12,483[5] (57th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 35.1[6]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.811[7]
very high · 52nd
CurrencyRomanian Leu (RON)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+40
ISO 3166 codeRO
Internet TLD.rof
  1. A Vlach duke ruling Transylvania around 895, Gelou, is mentioned alongside Glad and Menumorut in the late-12th-century Gesta Hungarorum (the reliability of which is debated); a 1247 royal charter, known as the Diploma of the Joannites, mentions four Romanian keneziates (or polities) in Muntenia and Oltenia.
  2. The double election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Moldavia and Wallachia (respectively, 5 and 24 January 1859).
  3. Independence proclaimed on 9 May 1877, internationally recognised in 1878.
  4. Romania in the interwar period, following the proclamation of the union in 1918 including Bessarabia, Bukovina, Transylvania, parts of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș, established after the Paris Peace Conference closing World War I in 1920.
  5. Monarchy was abolished on 30 December 1947 upon the proclamation of the People's Republic and was changed with the new constitution upon its adoption on 21 August 1965 as the Socialist Republic. The Communist regime fell on 22 December 1989, the new democratic government was installed on 20 May 1990 and the new post-communist constitution was adopted on 21 November 1991. Romania joined the European Union on 1 January 2007.
  6. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Romania (ə/ (About this soundlisten) MAY-nee-ə; Romanian: România [romɨˈni.a] (About this soundlisten)) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometers (92,046 square miles), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.

The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).[8]

Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I after declaring its neutrality in 1914, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers starting with 1916, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, and Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and, consequently, in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition towards democracy and a market economy.

Romania ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index,[9] and is a developing country.[10][11] It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7% (2017), the highest in the EU at the time.[12] Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language.

Etymology

Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome".[13] The first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia.[14][15][16][17]

Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian.

The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung",[18] is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească (old spelling for "The Romanian Land"; țeara from the Latin terra, "land"; current spelling: Țara Românească).

Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably[a] until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning.[19] After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român.[b] Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia."[20]

The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century.[c] The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861.[21]

In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania.[22] Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975.[23] Romania is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government.[24] A handful of other languages (including Italian, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Norwegian) have also switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie, German and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania (the archaic form Rumanía is still in use in Spain), Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния (Rumyniya), and Japanese ルーマニア (Rūmania).

Official names