Pope Gregory IX

Pope

Gregory IX
Gregory IX (cropped).jpg
Gregory IX in a manuscript miniature c. 1270
Papacy began19 March 1227
Papacy ended22 August 1241
PredecessorHonorius III
SuccessorCelestine IV
Orders
Created cardinalDecember 1198
by Innocent III
Personal details
Birth nameUgolino di Conti
Bornbetween 1145 and 1170
Anagni, Papal States
Died(1241-08-22)22 August 1241 (aged 70–96)
Rome, Papal States
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Coat of armsGregory IX's coat of arms
Other popes named Gregory
Papal styles of
Pope Gregory IX
C o a Innocenzo III.svg
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Pope Gregory IX (Latin: Gregorius IX; born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241) was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241. He is known for issuing the Decretales and instituting the Papal Inquisition in response to the failures of the episcopal inquisitions established during the time of Pope Lucius III through his papal bull Ad abolendam issued in 1184.

The successor of Pope Honorius III, he fully inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his own cousin Pope Innocent III and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy.

Early life

Ugolino (Hugh) was born in Anagni. The date of his birth varies in sources between c. 1145[1] and 1170.[2] He received his education at the Universities of Paris and Bologna.

He was created Cardinal-Deacon of the church of Sant'Eustachio by his cousin[3] Innocent III in December 1198. In 1206 he was promoted to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia e Velletri. He became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1218 or 1219. Upon the special request of Saint Francis, in 1220, Pope Honorius III appointed him Cardinal Protector of the order of the Franciscans.

As Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, he cultivated a wide range of acquaintances, among them the Queen of England, Isabella of Angoulême.[4]