Mongols

Mongols
Монголчууд
Mongolchuud
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
Total population
c. 10–11 million (2016)
Regions with significant populations
 China (mainly in the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia)6,146,730 (2015)[1]
 Mongolia     3,201,377[2]
 Russia822,763[3]
 South Korea41,500[4]
 United States18,000–20,500[5]
 Kyrgyzstan10,000[6]
 Czech Republic7,895[7]
 Japan7,340[8]
 Canada6,311[9]
 Germany4,056[8]
 United Kingdom3,331[8]
 France2,459[8]
 Turkey2,143[8]
 Kazakhstan2,723[8]
 Austria2,007[10]
 Malaysia1,530[8]
Languages
Mongolian language
Religion
Predominantly Tibetan Buddhism, background of shamanism.[11][12][13] minority Sunni Islam, Eastern Orthodox Church, Taoism, Bön and Protestantism.
Related ethnic groups
Proto-Mongols, Khitan people

The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɢɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are a Mongolic ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China (e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia.

The Mongols are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language. The ancestors of the modern-day Mongols are referred to as Proto-Mongols.

Definition

Broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols proper (also known as the Khalkha Mongols), Buryats, Oirats, the Kalmyk people and the Southern Mongols. The latter comprises the Abaga Mongols, Abaganar, Aohans, Baarins, Gorlos Mongols, Jalaids, Jaruud, Khishigten, Khuuchid, Muumyangan and Onnigud.

The designation "Mongol" briefly appeared in 8th century records of Tang China to describe a tribe of Shiwei. It resurfaced in the late 11th century during the Khitan-ruled Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao in 1125, the Khamag Mongols became a leading tribe on the Mongolian Plateau. However, their wars with the Jurchen-ruled Jin dynasty and the Tatar confederation had weakened them.

In the thirteenth century, the word Mongol grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic-speaking tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan.[14]