Mongol invasion of Europe

Mongol invasion of Europe
Part of Mongol invasions and conquests
Genghis Khan empire-en.svg
The route of the first Mongol expedition in Russia, 1223
Datea) 1236–1240
b) late 1240–1241
c) 1241
d) 1241–1242
e) 1241
f) 1242
g) 1242
h) 1291
Location
Eastern and Central Europe
a) Modern Russia, Ukraine and Belarus
b) Parts of Southern and Eastern Poland
c) Czech lands
d) Medieval Hungary
e) Kingdom of Croatia
f) Southern Austria
g) Bulgaria
h) Serbia
Result
a) Decisive Mongol victory resulting in principalities of Kievan State becoming vassals of the Mongol Golden Horde.
b) Decisive Mongol victory, Poland heavily raided.
c) Czech victory, Mongol raided parts of Moravia and Silesia but was repulsed in Bohemia.
d) Decisive Mongol victory, Hungary devastated; parts integrated into the Mongol Empire.
e) Croatian victory, Mongols pillage much of Croatia but fail to subjugate it due to stiff resistance.
f) Austrian victory, Mongol raids repulsed.
g) Mongol victory, Bulgaria becomes vassal of the Golden Horde.
h) Serbian victory, Serbia acknowledged supremacy of the Mongol Golden Horde.
Territorial
changes

a) Kievan Rus' principalities added to the Mongol Empire.
b) Kingdom of Poland subject to Mongol raids.
d) Parts of Kingdom of Hungary controlled by Mongol Empire.
Belligerents
Golden Horde
(Mongol Empire)
a) Kievan Rus' principalities:
Alex K Kyiv Michael 2.svg Kiev
COA of Chernihiv Principality.svgChernigov
Coat of Arms of Vladimir (1781).png Vladimir-Suzdal
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Galicia-Volhynia
Nowogród.svg Novgorod Republic
Symbol Duchy of Ryazan.svgPrincipality of Ryazan
Volga Bulgaria
Alans
Cuman-Kipchak confederation
Circassians
North Caucasian peoples
b) Coat of Arms of the Polish Crown.svg Polish duchies:
POL województwo dolnośląskie COA.svg Silesia
Chorągiew Mazowsza.svg Masovia
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Lesser Poland
POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg Greater Poland
POL województwo opolskie COA.svg Opole
c) Fantasy Coat of Arms in style of Bohemia.svg Kingdom of Bohemia
Moravia Arms.svg Moravian Magraviate
d) Coa Hungary Country History Bela III (1172-1196).svg Kingdom of Hungary
 Knights Templar
e) Coat of arms of Croatia 1495.svg Kingdom of Croatia
f) Gules a fess argent.svg Duchy of Austria
g) Flag of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg Bulgarian Empire
h) Nemanjić dynasty coat of arms, small, based on Palavestra.jpg Kingdom of Serbia
Commanders and leaders
a) Batu Khan
Möngke Khan
Subutai
Jebe
Burundai
Berke
Orda
Güyük Khan
b) Baidar (possibly  )
Kadan
Orda Khan
c) Batu Khan
Subutai
Shiban
Berke
Burundai
d) Batu Khan
Kadan
a) Prince Mstislav Mstislavich
Prince Yuri II of Vladimir 
Prince Mstislav III POW)
Prince Mstislav II
Khan Köten
Prince Daniel of Galicia
b) Wappen Schlesiens.png Duke Henry II 
POL województwo opolskie COA.svg Mieszko II the Fat
POL województwo małopolskie COA.svg Voivode Włodzimierz 
POL województwo małopolskie COA.svg Sulisław 
POL województwo małopolskie COA.svg Voivode Pakosław 
c) Fantasy Coat of Arms in style of Bohemia.svg King Wenceslaus I
Moravia Arms.svg Margrave Boleslaus Děpolt  
d) Coa Hungary Country History Béla IV (1235-1270).svg King Béla IV
Hungary Arms.svg Archbishop Ugrin Csák  
Hungary Arms.svg Archbishop Matthias Rátót 
Hungary Arms.svg Palatine Denis Tomaj  
e) King Béla IV
Coat of arms of Croatia 1495.svg Duke Coloman DOW)
f) Gules a fess argent.svg Duke Frederick II
g) Flag of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg Tsar Kaliman I of Bulgaria
h) Nemanjić dynasty coat of arms, small, based on Palavestra.jpg King Milutin
Strength
a) Unknown
b) 10,000 cavalry (one tumen)[1]
d) 15,000–30,000 cavalry (contemporary sources)[2]
other estimates:
70,000[3]
25,000[4][5]
a) 25,000–50,000 including garrisons and Cumans[6]
b) ~10,000 soldiers (2,000–8,000 at Legnica)[7]
d) 10,000–15,000 soldiers (contemporary sources)[8]
other estimates:
80,000[9]
25,000[4][5]
Casualties and losses
a) Minimal
b) Minimal
d) Few hundreds soldiers killed[10]
f) 300–700 soldiers killed
a) 500,000 civilians[11]
thousands of soldiers
b) Heavy
d) 10,000–20,000 soldiers killed[12][5]
300,000–500,000 civilians[5]
f) 100 soldiers killed

The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary.[13]

The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255) and Kadan (d. c. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.[14]

Invasions and conquest of Rus' lands

Returning to Vladimir by Yaroslav II of Vladimir after Mongol destruction. From the medieval Russian annals
The Mongol army captures a Rus' city

Ögedei Khan ordered Batu Khan to conquer Rus' in 1235.[15] The main force, headed by Jochi's sons, and their cousins, Möngke Khan and Güyük Khan, arrived at Ryazan in December 1237. Ryazan refused to surrender, and the Mongols sacked it and then stormed Suzdalia. Many Rus' armies were defeated; Grand Prince Yuri was killed on the Sit River (March 4, 1238). Major cities such as Vladimir, Torzhok, and Kozelsk were captured.

Afterward, the Mongols turned their attention to the steppe, crushing the Kypchaks and the Alans and sacking Crimea. Batu appeared in Kievan Rus' in 1239, sacking Pereiaslav and Chernihiv. Most of the Rus' princes fled when it became clear resistance was futile. The Mongols sacked Kiev on December 6, 1240, and conquered Galich and Volodymyr-Volynskyi. Batu sent a small detachment to probe the Poles before passing on to Central Europe. One column was routed by the Poles while the other defeated the Polish army and returned.[16]

The Mongols had acquired Chinese gunpowder, which they deployed in battle during the invasion of Europe to great success.[17]