Marseille

Marseille

Marselha  (Occitan)
Marseille panorama.jpg
Marseille 20131005 17.jpg
Calanque en.JPG
Marseille - Vieux port 4.jpg
France - Marseille (29881013814).jpg
Cathédrale Sainte-Marie-Majeure. 4.JPG
Motto(s): 
Actibus immensis urbs fulget massiliensis
"The city of Marseille shines from its great achievements"
Location of Marseille
Marseille is located in France
Marseille
Marseille
Marseille is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Marseille
Marseille
Coordinates: 43°17′47″N 5°22′12″E / 43°17′47″N 5°22′12″E / 43.2964; 5.37UTC+02:00 (CEST)
13055 /13001-13016
marseille.fr
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Marseille (/ SAY, French: [maʁsɛj] (About this soundlisten), locally [mɑχˈsɛjə] (About this soundlisten); also spelled in English as Marseilles; Provençal: Marselha [maʀˈsejɔ, -ˈsijɔ]) is the second largest city in France after Paris. The main city of the historical province of Provence, it is the prefecture of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. It is located on the Mediterranean coast near the mouth of the Rhône. The city covers an area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi) and had a population of 869,815 in 2016.[1] Its metropolitan area, which extends over 3,173 km2 (1,225 sq mi) is the third-largest in France after those of Paris and Lyon, with a population of 1,831,500 as of 2010.[3]

Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Massalia[4] (Greek: Μασσαλία, romanizedMassalía),[5][6] Marseille was an important European trading centre and remains the main commercial port of the French Republic. Marseille is now France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture in 2013 and European Capital of Sport in 2017; it hosted matches at the 1998 World Cup and Euro 2016. It is home to Aix-Marseille University.

Geography

View of the "Petit Nice" on Marseille's corniche (7th arrondissement) with the Frioul archipelago and the Château d'If in the background

Marseille is the second-largest city in France after Paris and the centre of the third-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris and Lyon. To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille and stretching as far as Cassis, are the Calanques, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets. Farther east still are the Sainte-Baume (a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees), the city of Toulon and the French Riviera. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire. To the west of Marseille is the former artists' colony of l'Estaque; farther west are the Côte Bleue, the Gulf of Lion and the Camargue region in the Rhône delta. The airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Étang de Berre.[7]

The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called the Canebière) stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Farther out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château d'If, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo. The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at Rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse (one of the city's main shopping malls). The centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones, most notably Rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th and 8th arrondissements, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde. Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière.[7]

Satellite view

Marseille and Calanques National Park from the ISS, February 2017

Climate

The city has a hot-summer mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, mostly dry summers.[8] December, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during the day and 19 °C (66 °F) at night in the Marignane airport (35 km (22 mi) from Marseille) but in the city near the sea the average high temperature is 27 °C (81 °F) in July.[9]

Marseille is officially the sunniest major city in France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in country (is around 1,950 hours). It is also the driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually, especially thanks to the Mistral, a cold, dry wind originating in the Rhône Valley that occurs mostly in winter and spring and which generally brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent; over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall.[citation needed]

The hottest temperature was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) on 26 July 1983 during a great heat wave, the lowest temperature was −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) on 13 February 1929 during a strong cold wave.[10]

Climate data for Marseille-Marignane (Marseille Provence Airport), elevation: 36 m, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1921–present[a]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
25.4
(77.7)
29.6
(85.3)
34.9
(94.8)
39.6
(103.3)
39.7
(103.5)
39.2
(102.6)
34.3
(93.7)
30.4
(86.7)
25.2
(77.4)
20.3
(68.5)
39.7
(103.5)
Average high °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
12.5
(54.5)
15.8
(60.4)
18.6
(65.5)
22.9
(73.2)
27.1
(80.8)
30.2
(86.4)
29.7
(85.5)
25.5
(77.9)
20.9
(69.6)
15.1
(59.2)
11.9
(53.4)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.1
(44.8)
8.1
(46.6)
11.0
(51.8)
13.8
(56.8)
18.0
(64.4)
21.8
(71.2)
24.8
(76.6)
24.4
(75.9)
20.6
(69.1)
16.6
(61.9)
11.1
(52.0)
7.9
(46.2)
15.5
(59.9)
Average low °C (°F) 2.9
(37.2)
3.6
(38.5)
6.2
(43.2)
9.1
(48.4)
13.1
(55.6)
16.6
(61.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.0
(66.2)
15.7
(60.3)
12.4
(54.3)
7.2
(45.0)
4.0
(39.2)
10.8
(51.4)
Record low °C (°F) −12.4
(9.7)
−16.8
(1.8)
−10.0
(14.0)
−2.4
(27.7)
0.0
(32.0)
5.4
(41.7)
7.8
(46.0)
8.1
(46.6)
1.0
(33.8)
−2.2
(28.0)
−5.8
(21.6)
−12.8
(9.0)
−16.8
(1.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.0
(1.89)
31.4
(1.24)
30.4
(1.20)
54.0
(2.13)
41.1
(1.62)
24.5
(0.96)
9.2
(0.36)
31.0
(1.22)
77.1
(3.04)
67.2
(2.65)
55.7
(2.19)
45.8
(1.80)
515.4
(20.29)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.3 4.5 3.9 6.1 4.5 3.0 1.3 2.7 4.5 6.1 5.9 5.5 53.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 145.1 173.7 238.7 244.5 292.9 333.4 369.1 327.4 258.6 187.1 152.5 134.9 2,857.8
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 4 5 7 8 8 7 5 3 2 1 4
Source: Météo France[13] and Weather Atlas[14]