Lombardy

Lombardy

Lombardia  (Italian)
Lombardia / Lombardéa  (Lombard)
Flag of Lombardy
Flag
Coat of arms of Lombardy
Coat of arms
Anthem: Lombardia, Lombardia[1]
Lombardy in Italy.svg
CountryItaly
CapitalMilan
Government
 • PresidentAttilio Fontana (LLLN)
Area
 • Total23,844 km2 (9,206 sq mi)
Population
 (30-11-2018)[2]
 • Total10,055,148
 • Density420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s)English: Lombard
Italian: Lombardo (man)
Italian: Lombarda (woman)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeIT-25
GDP/ Nominal€381 /$433[3] billion (2017)
GDP per capita€38,000 /$43,000[4] (2017)$50,670[5][circular reference] (2016) (PPP)
HDI (2017)0.901[6]
very high · 3rd of 21
www.regione.lombardia.it

Lombardy (m-/ LUM-;[7][8] Italian: Lombardia [lombarˈdiːa]; Lombard: Lombardia, Western Lombard: [lũbarˈdiːa], or Lombardéa, Eastern Lombard: [lombarˈde.a]) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres (9,206 sq mi). About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe.[9] Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy.

Etymology

The word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, Langobardus ("a Lombard"), derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz; equivalent to long beard. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz ("axe"), related to German Barte ("axe").[10]

During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards (Latin: Regnum Langobardorum), a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568. As such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were almost interchangeable; by the mid-8th century the Lombards ruled everywhere except the Papal possessions around Rome (roughly modern Lazio and northern Umbria), Venice and some Byzantine possessions in the south (southern Apulia and Calabria; some coastal settlements including Amalfi, Gaeta, Naples and Sorrento; Sicily and Sardinia). The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (roughly Romagna and northern Marche, and initially also Emilia and Liguria) and the Papacy (which was initially part of the Exarchate). During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy. (See: Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)). The term was also used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία (Longobardia) as the name for the territory roughly covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento.