List of Portuguese monarchs

King of Portugal and the Algarves
Brasão de armas do reino de Portugal.svg
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Style His Most Faithful Majesty
First monarchAfonso I
Last monarchManuel II
Formation25 July 1139
Abolition5 October 1910
ResidenceRoyal residences in Portugal
Pretender(s)Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza

The monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.

Through the nearly 800 years in which Portugal was a monarchy, the kings held various other titles and pretensions. Two kings of Portugal, Ferdinand I and Afonso V, also claimed the crown of Castile. When the house of Habsburg came into power, the kings of Spain, Naples, and Sicily also became kings of Portugal. The house of Braganza brought numerous titles to the Portuguese Crown, including King of Brazil and then de jure Emperor of Brazil.

After the demise of the Portuguese monarchy, in 1910, Portugal almost restored its monarchy in a revolution known as the Monarchy of the North, though the attempted restoration only lasted a month before destruction. With Manuel II's death, the Miguelist branch of the house of Braganza became the pretenders to the throne of Portugal. They have all been acclaimed king of Portugal by their monarchist groups.

The monarchs of Portugal all came from a single ancestor, Afonso I of Portugal, but direct lines have sometimes ended. This has led to a variety of royal houses coming to rule Portugal, though all having Portuguese royal lineage. These houses are:

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)

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The Portuguese House of Burgundy, known as the Afonsine Dynasty, was the founding house of the Kingdom of Portugal. Prior to the independence of Portugal, the house ruled the feudal County of Portugal, of the Kingdom of Galicia. When Alphonso I Henriques declared the independence of Portugal, he turned the family from a comital house to a royal house which would rule Portugal for over two centuries. When Ferdinand I died, a succession crisis occurred and Ferdinand's daughter Beatrice of Portugal was proclaimed queen and her husband John I of Castile proclaimed king by the right of his wife. Her legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.[1][2]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Alphonso I
  • The Conqueror; The Great; The Founder
  • Afonso I Henriques
1106/09/11 – 6 December 1185 (aged 73–79)25 July 11396 December 1185previously Count of Portugal, founder of the Kingdom of Portugal
Son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, Countess of Portugal
Sancho I
  • The Populator
  • Sancho I
11 November 1154 – 26 March 1211 (aged 56)6 December 118526 March 1211Son of Alphonso IBurgundy
Alphonso II
  • The Fat
  • Afonso II
23 April 1185 – 25 March 1223 (aged 37)27 March 121125 March 1223Son of Sancho IBurgundy
Sancho II
  • The Pious
  • Sancho II
8 September 1209 – 4 January 1248 (aged 38)26 March 12234 December 1247Son of Alphonso IIBurgundy
Alphonso III
  • The Count of Boulogne
  • Afonso III
5 May 1210 – 16 February 1279 (aged 68)4 January 124816 February 1279Son of Alphonso II
Brother of Sancho II
Denis I
9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 (aged 63)6 February 12797 January 1325Son of Alphonso IIIBurgundy
Alphonso IV
  • The Brave
  • Afonso IV
8 February 1291 – 28 May 1357 (aged 66)7 January 132528 May 1357Son of Denis IBurgundy
Peter I
8 April 1320 – 18 January 1367 (aged 46)28 May 135718 January 1367Son of Alphonso IVBurgundy
Ferdinand I
31 October 1345 – 22 October 1383 (aged 37)18 January 136722 October 1383Son of Peter IBurgundy