Later Han (Five Dynasties)

Han

947–951
Later Han
Later Han
CapitalBian (Kaifeng)
Common languagesChinese
Religion
Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 947–948
Emperor Gaozu
• 948–951
Emperor Yin
Historical eraFive Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
• Established in Taiyuan
March 10, 947
• Coup d'etat, surrender of Bian; Emperor Yin killed (de facto end)
January 1; January 2, 951
• Guo Wei proclaimed Emperor (de jure end)
February 13 951
CurrencyChinese cash, Chinese coin, copper coins etc.
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Later Jìn
Later Zhou
Northern Han
Today part ofChina

The Later Han (simplified Chinese: 后汉; traditional Chinese: 後漢; pinyin: Hòu Hàn) was founded in 947. It was the fourth of the Five Dynasties, and the third consecutive sinicized Shatuo ethnicity state,[1] however, other sources indicate that the Later Han emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[2] It was among the shortest-lived of all Chinese regimes, lasting for slightly under four years before it was overcome by a rebellion that resulted in the founding of the Later Zhou.

Establishment of the Later Han

Liu Zhiyuan was military governor of Bingzhou, an area around Taiyuan in present-day Shanxi that had long been a stronghold of the sinicized Shatuo. However, the Later Jin he served was weak and little more than a puppet of the expanding Khitan empire to the north. When the Later Jin finally did decide to defy them, the Khitan sent an expedition south that resulted in the destruction of the Later Jin.

The Khitan force made it all the way to the Yellow River before the emperor decided to return to his base in present-day Beijing, in the heart of the contentious Sixteen Prefectures. However, following constant harassment from the Chinese on the return route, he died of an illness in May 947. The combination of the fall of the Later Jin and the succession crisis among the Khitan resulted in a power vacuum. Liu Zhiyuan was able to fill that void and founded the Later Han.

Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors, some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[2]