Korea under Japanese rule

Japanese Korea

大日本帝國(朝鮮)
Dai Nippon Teikoku (Chōsen)
대일본제국(조선)
Daeilbonjegug(Joseon)
1910–1945
Seal
Seal of the
Government-General
of Korea
Anthem: 
Korea (dark red) within the Empire of Japan (light red) at its furthest extent
Korea (dark red) within the Empire of Japan (light red) at its furthest extent
StatusColony of the
Empire of Japan
CapitalEmblem of Keijo (1925–1945).svg Keijō (Gyeongseong)[N 1]
Common languagesJapanese (official)
Korean
Religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 1910–1912
Meiji
• 1912–1926
Taishō
• 1926–1945
Shōwa
 
• 1910–1916
Terauchi Masatake
• 1916–1919
Hasegawa Yoshimichi
• 1942–1944
Kuniaki Koiso
• 1944–1945
Nobuyuki Abe
Historical eraEmpire of Japan
17 November 1905
• Annexation treaty signed
22 August 1910
• Annexation by Japan
29 August 1910
1 March 1919
• Sōshi-kaimei order
1939
15 August 1945
CurrencyKorean yen
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Korean Empire
Soviet Civil Administration in Korea
United States Army Military Government in Korea
Today part ofNorth Korea
South Korea
  1. Japanese: 京城, Korean경성; RRGyeongseong; MRKyŏngsŏng
  2. According to Korean Christians[5]

Japanese Korea (Japanese: 大日本帝國 (朝鮮), Dai Nippon Teikoku (Chōsen)) refers to the period when Korea was under Japanese rule, between 1910 and 1945.

Joseon Korea came under the Japanese sphere of influence in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 and a complex coalition of the Meiji government, military, and business officials began a process of Korea's political and economic integration into Japan. The Korean Empire became a protectorate of Japan in 1905 in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 and the country was indirectly ruled by the Japanese through the Resident-General of Korea. Japan formally annexed the Korean Empire in 1910 in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, without the consent of Gojong, the regent of the Korean Emperor Sunjong.[6][7][8] Japanese Korea established the Korean Peninsula as an overseas colony of Japan administered by the General Government based in Keijō (Gyeongseong) which governed Korea with near-absolute power. Japanese rule prioritized Korea's Japanization, accelerating industrialization started by the Gwangmu Reform, building public works, and fighting the Korean independence movement.[9][10][11]

Japanese rule over Korea ended on 15 August 1945 upon the Surrender of Japan in World War II and the armed forces of the United States and the Soviet Union occupied the territory. The Division of Korea separated the Korean Peninsula under two governments and economic systems with the northern Soviet Civil Administration and the southern United States Army Military Government in Korea. In 1965, the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and South Korea declared the unequal treaties between Japan and Korea, especially 1905 and 1910, were "already null and void" at the time of their promulgation.[8][12] Japanese rule remains controversial in modern-day North Korea and South Korea and its negative repercussions continue to affect these countries, including the industrialization plan to solely benefit Japan, the exploitation of Korean people, the marginalization of Korean history and culture, the environmental exploitation of the Korean Peninsula, and the status of Japanese collaborators known as Chinilpa.[13]

Terminology

In South Korea, the period is usually described as the "Japanese forced occupation" (Korean일제 강점기; Hanja日帝强占期; RRIlje Gangjeom-gi). Other terms, although often considered obsolete, include "Japanese Imperial Period" (Korean일제시대; Hanja日帝時代; RRIlje Sidae), "The dark Japanese Imperial Period" (Korean일제암흑기; Hanja日帝暗黑期; RRIlje Amheuk-gi), "period of the Japanese imperial colonial administration" (Korean일제 식민 통치 시대; Hanja日帝植民統治時代; RRIlje Sikmin Tongchi Sidae), and "Wae (Japanese) administration" (Korean왜정; Hanja倭政; RRWae-jeong).

In Japan, the term "Chōsen (Korea) of the Japanese-Governed Period" (日本統治時代の朝鮮, Nippon Tōchi-jidai no Chōsen) has been used.