Kingdom of Hungary

Kingdom of Hungary
Names

Magyar Királyság  (Hungarian)
Regnum Hungariae  (Latin)
Königreich Ungarn  (German)
  • 1000–1918
  • 1920–1946
Motto: Regnum Mariae Patrona Hungariae[1]
"Kingdom of Mary, the Patron of Hungary"
The Kingdom of Hungary (dark green) and Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914
The Kingdom of Hungary (dark green) and Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914
CapitalBudapest
Historical capitals:
Official languages

Other spoken languages:
Carpathian Romani, Croatian, Polish, Romanian, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Yiddish
Religion
Roman Catholic,[2] Calvinism, Lutheranism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Eastern Catholic, Unitarianism, Judaism
GovernmentMonarchy
Monarch 
• 1000–1038
Stephen I (first)
• 1916–1918
Charles IV (last)
• 1920–1944
Regent Miklós Horthy
Palatine 
• 1009–1038
Samuel Aba
• 1847–1848
Stephen Francis Victor
Prime Minister 
• 1848
Lajos Batthyány
• 1945–1946
Zoltán Tildy
LegislatureDiet (from the 1290s)
House of Magnates
(1867–1918; 1926–1945)
House of Representatives
(1867–1918; 1927–1945)
Historical era2nd millennium
• Coronation of Stephen I
25 December 1000
24 April 1222
11 April 1241
29 August 1526
29 August 1541
26 January 1699
15 March 1848
30 March 1867
4 June 1920
1 February 1946
Area
1200[3]282,870 km2 (109,220 sq mi)
1910[4]282,870 km2 (109,220 sq mi)
1930[5]93,073 km2 (35,936 sq mi)
1941[6]172,149 km2 (66,467 sq mi)
Population
• 1200[3]
2,000,000
• 1790[7]
8,000,000
• 1910[4]
18,264,533
• 1930[5]
8,688,319
• 1941[6]
14,669,100
Currency
ISO 3166 codeHU
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Principality of Hungary
Hungarian Republic (1919–20)
First Hungarian Republic
Second Hungarian Republic
Today part of

The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom around the year 1000;[8] his family (the Árpád dynasty) led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world.[8]

Due to the Ottoman occupation of the central and southern territories of Hungary in the 16th century, the country was partitioned into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary, Ottoman Hungary, and the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania.[8] The House of Habsburg held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács until 1918 and also played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire.

From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. The monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic. The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency" of 1920–46, ending under the Soviet occupation in 1946.[8]

The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic[9] state from its inception[10] until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), Burgenland (now part of Austria), Međimurje (now part of Croatia), Prekmurje (now part of Slovenia) and a few villages in Poland). From 1102 it also included Croatia, being in personal union with it, united under the King of Hungary.

According to the demographers, about 80 percent of the population was made up of Hungarians before the Battle of Mohács,[neutrality is disputed] however in the mid 19th century out of a population of 14 million less then 6 million were Hungarian due to the resettlement policies and continuous immigration from neighboring countries.[11][12] Major territorial changes made Hungary ethnically homogeneous after World War I. Nowadays, more than nine-tenths of the population is ethnically Hungarian and speaks Hungarian as the mother tongue.

Today, the feast day of the first king Stephen I (20 August) is a national holiday in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state (Foundation Day).[13]

Names

The Latin forms Regnum Hungariae or Ungarie (Regnum meaning kingdom); Regnum Marianum (Kingdom of Mary); or simply Hungaria, were the names used in official documents in Latin from the beginning of the kingdom to the 1840s.

The German name Königreich Ungarn was used officially from 1784 to 1790[14] and again between 1849 and the 1860s.

The Hungarian name (Magyar Királyság) was used in the 1840s, and then again from the 1860s to 1946. The unofficial Hungarian name of the kingdom was Magyarország,[15] which is still the colloquial, and also the official name of Hungary.[16]

The names in the other native languages of the kingdom were: Polish: Królestwo Węgier, Romanian: Regatul Ungariei, Serbian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Croatian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Slovene: Kraljevina Ogrska, Slovak: Uhorské kráľovstvo, and Italian (for the city of Fiume), Regno d'Ungheria.

In Austria-Hungary (1867–1918), the unofficial name Transleithania was sometimes used to denote the regions of the Kingdom of Hungary. Officially, the term Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen was included for the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary, although this term was also in use prior to that time.