Khwarazmian dynasty

Khwarazmian Empire

خوارزمشاهیان
Khwārazmshāhiyān
1077–1231
Khwarezmid Empire's Area
Khwarezmid Empire's Area
CapitalGurganj
(1077–1212)
Samarkand
(1212–1220)
Ghazna
(1220–1221)
Tabriz
(1225–1231)
Common languagesPersian[1]
Kipchak Turkic[2]
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentOligarchy
Khwarazm-Shah or Sultan 
• 1077–1096/7
Anushtigin Gharchai
• 1220–1231
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
Historical eraMedieval
• Established
1077
1218-1221
1230
• Disestablished
1231
Area
1210 est.[3]or2,300,000 km2 (890,000 sq mi)
1218 est.[4]3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Great Seljuq Empire
Ghurid Dynasty
Mongol Empire

The Khwarazmian (English: ən/[5]) dynasty was a Persianate[6][7][8] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin.[9][10] The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs[11] and the Qara-Khitan,[12] and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty spanned 2.3[13] (or 3.6[14]) million square kilometers.

The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkic slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.[15]

Names

It was also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants. It is derived from Persian: خوارزمشاهیان‎, romanizedKhwārazmshāhiyān "Kings of Khwarazm".

History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
  Volga Bulgaria
Kangar union 659–750
Turk Shahi 665–850
Türgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091
Kimek confederation
743–1035
Cumania
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Sultanate of Rum
Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Naiman Khanate –1204
Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khalji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [16][17][18] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty
Bengal Sultanate 1352–1487
  Ilyas Shahi dynasty
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