Kaifeng

Kaifeng

开封市
Top: Xuande Palace at Millennium City Park, Bottom upper left: Gate Tower and Kaifeng Government Hall, Bottom lower left: Iron Pagoda and Tieta Lake, Bottom right: Statue of Zhang Zeduan in Millennium City Park
Top: Xuande Palace at Millennium City Park,
Bottom upper left: Gate Tower and Kaifeng Government Hall,
Bottom lower left: Iron Pagoda and Tieta Lake,
Bottom right: Statue of Zhang Zeduan in Millennium City Park
Flag of Kaifeng
Flag
Location of Kaifeng City jurisdiction in Henan
Location of Kaifeng City jurisdiction in Henan
Kaifeng is located in China
Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Location in China
Coordinates (Kaifeng government): 34°47′53″N 114°18′29″E / 34°47′53″N 114°18′29″E / 34.798; 114.308
Kaifeng
Kaifeng (Chinese characters).svg
"Kaifeng" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese开封
Traditional Chinese開封
Literal meaning"Opening the Border"

Kaifeng (Chinese: 开封) is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for being the Chinese capital in the Northern Song dynasty.

Around 5 million people currently live in Kaifeng's metropolitan area. Located along the Yellow River's southern bank, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the west, Xinxiang to the northwest, Shangqiu to the east, Zhoukou to the southeast, Xuchang to the southwest, and Heze of Shandong to the northeast.

Names

The postal romanization for the city is "Kaifeng". Its official one-character abbreviation in Chinese is (Biàn). Historically it has also been known as

  • Dàliáng (Chinese: 大梁)
  • Biànliáng (汴梁)
  • Biànzhōu (汴州)
  • Nánjīng (南京)
  • Dōngjīng (東京)
  • Biànjīng (汴京)

The area was named "Kaifeng" after the Qin's conquest of China in the second century BC. The name literally means "opening the border" and figuratively "hidden" and "vengeance".[1] Its name was originally Qifeng (simplified Chinese: 啓封; traditional Chinese: 啟封), but the syllable qi (Baxter-Sagart: /*kʰˤijʔ/) was changed to the essentially synonymous kai (/*Nə-[k]ʰˤəj/, /*[k]ʰˤəj/) to avoid the naming taboo of Liu Qi (Emperor Jing of Han).