Kaifeng (Chinese: 开封) is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for being the Chinese capital in the Northern Song dynasty.
Around 5 million people currently live in Kaifeng's metropolitan area. Located along the Yellow River's southern bank, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the west, Xinxiang to the northwest, Shangqiu to the east, Zhoukou to the southeast, Xuchang to the southwest, and Heze of Shandong to the northeast.
The postal romanization for the city is "Kaifeng". Its official one-character abbreviation in Chinese is 汴 (Biàn). Historically it has also been known as
- Dàliáng (Chinese: 大梁)
- Biànliáng (汴梁)
- Biànzhōu (汴州)
- Nánjīng (南京)
- Dōngjīng (東京)
- Biànjīng (汴京)
The area was named "Kaifeng" after the Qin's conquest of China in the second century BC. The name literally means "opening the border" and figuratively "hidden" and "vengeance". Its name was originally Qifeng (simplified Chinese: 啓封; traditional Chinese: 啟封), but the syllable qi (Baxter-Sagart: /*kʰˤijʔ/) was changed to the essentially synonymous kai （/*Nə-[k]ʰˤəj/, /*[k]ʰˤəj/） to avoid the naming taboo of Liu Qi (Emperor Jing of Han).