Japan

Japan[1]

  • 日本
  • Nippon or Nihon
Anthem: Kimigayo "君が代"
"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[3][4]
Government Seal of Japan
Seal of the Office of the Prime Minister and the Government of Japan
五七桐
Go-Shichi no Kiri
Projection of Asia with Japan's Area coloured green
Japanese territory in dark green; claimed, but uncontrolled land shown in light green
Capital
and largest city
Tokyo[5]
35°41′N 139°46′E / 35°41′N 139°46′E / 35.683; 139.767
National languageJapanese
Ethnic groups
(2018)[6]
Religion
(2000)[7]
Demonym(s)Japanese
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Emperor
Naruhito
Shinzō Abe
Tadamori Oshima
Akiko Santō
Naoto Ōtani
LegislatureNational Diet
House of Councillors
House of Representatives
Formation
February 11, 660 BC[8]
November 29, 1890
May 3, 1947
April 28, 1952
Area
• Total
377,973[9] km2 (145,936 sq mi)[10] (61st)
• Water (%)
3.55
Population
• January 2019 census
126,317,000[11] (11th)
• Density
334/km2 (865.1/sq mi) (41st)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$5.749 trillion[12] (4th)
• Per capita
$45,565[12] (31st)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$5.176 trillion[12] (3rd)
• Per capita
$41,021[12] (26th)
Gini (2011)37.9[13]
medium · 76th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.909[14]
very high · 19th
CurrencyYen (¥) / En (JPY)
Time zoneUTC+09:00 (JST)
Date format
  • yyyy-mm-dd
  • yyyy年m月d日
  • Era yy年m月d日 (CE−2018)
Mains electricity100 V–50 and 60 Hz
Driving sideleft
Calling code+81
ISO 3166 codeJP
Internet TLDwww.japan.go.jp
Japan
Japanese name
Kanji日本国
Hiraganaにっぽんこく
にほんこく
Katakanaニッポンコク
ニホンコク
Kyūjitai日本國

Japan (Japanese: 日本, Nippon [ɲippoꜜɴ] (About this soundlisten) or Nihon [ɲihoꜜɴ] (About this soundlisten); formally 日本国, About this soundNippon-koku or Nihon-koku, lit. 'State of Japan') is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

The kanji that make up Japan's name mean 'sun origin', and it is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is the world's 4th largest island country and encompasses about 6,852 islands. The stratovolcanic archipelago has five main islands: Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and Okinawa which make up about 97% percent of Japan's land area.[15] The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one. Japan is the 2nd most populous island country. The population of approximately 126 million is the world's eleventh largest, of which 98.5% are ethnic Japanese. 90.7% of people live in cities, while 9.3% live in the countryside.[16] About 13.8 million people live in Tokyo,[17] the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people.[18]

Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, particularly from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history.

From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled in the name of the Emperor by successive feudal military shōguns. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.

Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, and the G20, and is considered a great power.[19][20][21] Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity. It is also the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer.

Japan benefits from a highly skilled and educated workforce; it has among the world's largest proportion of citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[22] Although it has officially renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget,[23] used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles; it ranked as the world's fourth most-powerful military in 2015.[24] Japan is a highly developed country with a very high standard of living and Human Development Index. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, manga, anime, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology.[25][26]

Etymology

The Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nihon or Nippon and literally means "the origin of the sun". The character nichi () means "sun" or "day"; hon () means "base" or "origin".[27] The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun".[28]

The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country. This name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises" (日出處天子). The message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you[?]".[29]

The "King of Na gold seal", said to have been granted to Na king of Wa (Japan) by Emperor Guangwu of Han in 57 CE. The seal reads "漢委奴國王". Tokyo National Museum

Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato (大和, or "Great Wa") and Wakoku (倭国) were used. The term Wa () is a homophone of Wo (pronounced "Wa" by the Japanese), which has been used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period. Another form of Wa (), Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty.[30] However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa (which has been associated in China with concepts like "dwarf" or "pygmy"), and it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa (), meaning "togetherness, harmony".[29][31]

The English word Japan possibly derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu.[32] In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本 Japan is Zeppen [zəʔpən]. The old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect, probably Fukienese or Ningpo[33] – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century.[34] These Early Portuguese traders then brought the word to Europe.[35] The first record of this name in English is in a book published in 1577 and spelled Giapan, in a translation of a 1565 letter written by a Portuguese Jesuit Luís Fróis.[36][37]

From the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II, the full title of Japan was Dai Nippon Teikoku (大日本帝國), meaning "the Empire of Great Japan".[38] Today, the name Nihon-koku/Nippon-koku (日本国) is used as a formal modern-day equivalent with the meaning of "the State of Japan". Countries like Japan whose long form does not contain a descriptive designation are generally given a name appended by the character koku (), meaning "country", "nation" or "state".