Ikhshidid dynasty


الإخشيديون (al-Ikhshīdīyūn)
Ikhshidid Dynasty 965-969
Ikhshidid Dynasty 965-969
StatusVassal of the Abbasid Caliphate
CapitalFustat (Cairo)
Common languagesArabic (predominant), Turkic (army)
Islam (predominant), Coptic and Maronite Christians
Wali (governor) 
• 935–946
Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid
• 946–961
Abu'l-Qasim Unujur ibn al-Ikhshid
• 961–966
Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn al-Ikhshid
• 966–968
Abu'l-Misk Kafur
• 968–969
Abu'l-Fawaris Ahmad ibn Ali ibn al-Ikhshid
• Established
• Disestablished
935-969 est.2,000,000 km2 (770,000 sq mi)
Today part of
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
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Kangar union 659–750
Turk Shahi 665–850
Türgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
Kimek confederation
Oghuz Yabgu State
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Sultanate of Rum
Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Naiman Khanate –1204
Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khalji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [1][2][3] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty
Bengal Sultanate 1352–1487
  Ilyas Shahi dynasty

The Ikhshidid dynasty (Arabic: الإخشيديون‎) ruled Egypt from 935 to 969. Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid, a Turkic[4][5][6] slave soldier, was appointed governor by the Abbasid Caliph.[7] The dynasty carried the Arabic title "Wāli" reflecting their position as governors on behalf of the Abbasids. The Ikhshidids came to an end when the Fatimid army conquered Fustat in 969.[8]



The creation of the Ikhshidid state was part of the wider disintegration and decentralisation of the Abbasids after the Anarchy at Samarra, whereupon government became more decentralised. The founder, Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid, possessed some form of military power[9] and was on friendly relations with Mu'nis al-Muzaffar, a powerful military leader. Before he was appointed to Fustat he held the post of governor of Damascus. He was first appointed to the post of Governor of Egypt in 933 but did not enter it during the first stint.[10] In 935 he was appointed a second time to the governorship whilst the country was in a state of war with multiple factions. He launched a campaign to conquer Egypt by land and sea, the naval forces taking Tinnis and able to outflank Ahmad ibn Kayghalagh, the main opponent, forcing his retreat and facilitating ibn Tughj's subsequent entry to Fustat in August.[11] The Fatimids were a major threat at the time and considerable effort was put into repelling them, culminating in their defeat by Ubayd Allah, ibn Tughj's brother, by November 936.[12] There was remarkable stability in the early years, with an absence of economic chaos and Bedouin raids, coupled with prohibition of looting, which helped pacify Egypt. Ibn Tughj sought the honorific title (laqab) of Al-Ikhshīd, which means "King of the Farghanians", from the Abbasids and official designation arrived in July 939.[13]


Muhammad ibn Ra'iq took over Syria in 939, which threatened Egypt. Enraged, ibn Tughj threatened to recognise the Fatimids, the Abbasids' enemy as the Abbasid caliph did not formally declare for ibn Tughj, the de jure governor. Nonetheless, his simple goals resulted in mainly defensive actions and eventually came to terms with ibn Ra'iq where ibn Tughj would continue to have Egypt and the same for ibn Ra'iq in Syria, partitioned along Ramla-Tiberias.[14] In 944 ibn Tughj was awarded the governorships of Egypt, Syria and Hijaz for 30 years to his family, and these posts would past to his son, Abu'l-Qasim.[15] Earlier in 942 he began striking coins in his own name, and the changes of power in Baghdad meant less central authority. In 945 he defeated Sayf al-Dawla, another adversary who took over Damascus,[16] which resulted in a truce until his death in 946. Abu'l-Qasim inherited the conflict with Sayf al-Dawla and fought him at Damascus, and al-Dawla soon occupied Aleppo in 947. There was a simultaneous revolt by Ghabun, governor of Middle Egypt who managed to occupy Fustat before his death in the same year. Nonetheless, Kafur's continuation of the appeasement policy managed to negotiate a settlement between the Ikhshidids and the Hamdanids where Damascus became Egyptian again and the tribute to the Hamdanids stopped, with borders largely in line with status quo ante bellum.[17] This peace practically settled the Ikhshidid borders and left the Fatimids, again as the main threat, with the Byzantines now Hamdanid responsibility. Kafur wielded real authority following ibn Tughj's death in 946 and was highly regarded among contemporaries.[18]

Troubles, decline and conquest by Fatimids

Nubian incursions occurred in 950 and a more serious invasion took place in 965, when Aswan was pillaged. This coincided with the famine of 963-968 while Berbers, Bedouins and Qarmatians all took advantage of the weakened state.[19] In 966 Kafur took over after Abu'l-Hasan's death, which furthered increased uncertainty due to his status as a eunuch. Nonetheless he received the title 'Ustādh,' meaning "master," from Baghdad, which gave him some legitimacy. Ibn Killis, Kafur's vizier, was arrested following Kafur's death in 968 and following his release traveled to Fatimid Ifriqiya and provided vital information to them.[20] In 934 a Fatimid invasion led by the eunuch Raydan managed to capture Alexandria but was repulsed.[21] Only a later attempt by the Fatimid general Jawhar al-Siqilli managed to conquer Egypt in 969. Ubayd Allah, brother of Muhammad ibn Tughj, held out in Syria until March 970, when he was defeated and taken prisoner by Ja'far ibn Fallah, signalling the end of the Ikhshidid dynasty as a ruling power.