Geography and vegetation
The Hodna Mountain ridge is located south of Kabylie. It sits at a parallel latitude in a roughly east–west direction between the Bibans in the northwest and the Belezma Range in the east. The highest peak, at 1,902 meters, is the
Djebel Tachrirt; another important summit is 1,659 m high
Djebel Guetiane, both located in the easternmost range of the Hodna chain already in Batna Province, towards the transition zone with the Aurès Mountains. The Maadid Range, the Kiyāna Range and the 'Aqqār Range are other subranges of the Hodna Mountains.
The Hodna Range has a zone of about 8,000 ha of natural cedar forest near Boutaleb growing in relatively xerophile conditions.
The former inhabitants of the Hodna Mountains built a complex system of water retention walls named jessour. They were built parallel to the level curves forming steps in the talwegs. On the northern slopes of the Djebel Tachrirt the walls were constructed above the ground level, allowing the snow to accumulate and to melt slowly in order to distribute the available water resulting from the snow melting period. Most of these traditional water management works are now in ruins.