Guadalcanal campaign

Guadalcanal campaign
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II
Marines rest in the field on Guadalcanal.jpg
United States Marines rest in the field during the Guadalcanal campaign
Date7 August 1942 – 9 February 1943
(6 months and 2 days)
Location
Result

Allied victory

  • Beginning of Allied Offensive Operations in the Pacific
Belligerents
 United States
 United Kingdom
 • Solomon Islands[1]
 • Fiji[2]
 •  Tonga[3]
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Japan
Commanders and leaders
United States U.S. Navy:
Robert L. Ghormley
William F. Halsey, Jr.
Richmond K. Turner
Frank J. Fletcher
United States U.S. Marine Corps:
Alexander A. Vandegrift
Merritt A. Edson
United States U.S. Army:
Alexander M. Patch
United States U.S. Coast Guard:
Russell R. Waesche
Empire of Japan I.J. Navy:
Isoroku Yamamoto
Hiroaki Abe
Nobutake Kondō
Nishizo Tsukahara
Takeo Kurita
Jinichi Kusaka
Shōji Nishimura
Gunichi Mikawa
Raizō Tanaka
Empire of Japan I.J. Army:
Hitoshi Imamura
Harukichi Hyakutake
Strength
60,000+ men (ground forces)[4]36,200 men (ground forces)[5]
Casualties and losses
7,100 dead[6]
7,789+ wounded[7]
4 captured
29 ships lost including 1 fleet carrier, 1 light carrier, 6 cruisers and 14 destroyers.
615 aircraft lost[8]

19,200 dead, of which 8,500 were killed in combat[9]

1,000 captured
38 ships lost including 1 light carrier, 2 battleships, 3 heavy cruisers, 13 destroyers.
683 aircraft lost[10][11]
10,652 evacuated.

The Guadalcanal campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower by American forces, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific theater of World War II. It was the first major offensive by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan.

On 7 August 1942, Allied forces, predominantly United States Marines, landed on Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida in the southern Solomon Islands, with the objective of denying their use by the Japanese to threaten Allied supply and communication routes between the United States, Australia, and New Zealand; powerful American and Australian naval forces supported these landings.

The Allies also intended to use Guadalcanal and Tulagi as bases in supporting a campaign to eventually capture or neutralize the major Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain. The Japanese defenders, who had occupied those islands since May 1942, were outnumbered and overwhelmed by the Allies, who captured Tulagi and Florida, as well as the airfield – later named Henderson Field – that was under construction on Guadalcanal.

Surprised by the Allied offensive, the Japanese made several attempts between August and November to retake Henderson Field. Three major land battles, seven large naval battles (five nighttime surface actions and two carrier battles), and almost daily aerial battles culminated in the decisive Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in early November, with the defeat of the last Japanese attempt to bombard Henderson Field from the sea and to land enough troops to retake it. In December, the Japanese abandoned their efforts to retake Guadalcanal, and evacuated their remaining forces by 7 February 1943, in the face of an offensive by the U.S. Army's XIV Corps.

The Guadalcanal campaign was a significant strategic Allied combined-arms victory in the Pacific theater. While the Battle of Midway was a crushing defeat of the Imperial Japanese Navy, it did not stop Japanese offensives, which continued both at sea and on the ground.[12] The victories at Milne Bay, Buna–Gona, and Guadalcanal marked the Allied transition from defensive operations to the strategic initiative in the theater, leading to offensive campaigns in the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, and the Central Pacific, which resulted in the surrender of Japan, ending World War II.

Background

Strategic considerations

Japanese control of the western Pacific area between May and August 1942. Guadalcanal is located in the lower right center of the map.

On 7 December 1941, Japanese forces attacked the United States Pacific Fleet at Naval Station Pearl Harbor, incorporated territory of Hawaii. The attack killed almost 2,500 people and crippled much of the U.S. battleship fleet, precipitating an open and formal state of war between the two nations the next day. The initial goals of Japanese leaders were to neutralize the U.S. Navy, seize possessions rich in natural resources, and establish strategic military bases to defend Japan's empire in the Pacific Ocean and Asia. To further those goals, Japanese forces captured the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Wake Island, Gilbert Islands, New Britain and Guam. Joining the U.S. in the war against Japan were the rest of the Allied powers, several of whom, including the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Netherlands, had also been attacked by Japan.[13]

The Japanese made two attempts to continue their strategic initiative, and offensively extend their outer defensive perimeter in the south and central Pacific to where they could threaten Australia and Hawaii or the U.S. West Coast. Those efforts were thwarted at the naval battles of Coral Sea and Midway respectively. Coral Sea was a tactical stalemate, but a strategic Allied victory which became clear only much later. Midway was not only the Allies' first clear major victory against the Japanese, it significantly reduced the offensive capability of Japan's carrier forces, but did not change their offensive mindset for several crucial months in which they compounded mistakes by moving ahead with brash, even brazen decisions, such as the attempt to assault Port Moresby over the Kokoda trail. Up to this point, the Allies had been on the defensive in the Pacific but these strategic victories provided them an opportunity to take the initiative from Japan.[14]

The Allies chose the Solomon Islands (a protectorate of the United Kingdom), specifically the southern Solomon Islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi and Florida Island, as the first target, designated Task One (codenamed Pestilence), with three specific objectives.[15][16] Originally, the objectives were the occupation of the Santa Cruz Islands (codenamed Huddle), Tulagi (codenamed Watchtower), and "adjacent positions".[17] Guadalcanal (code name Cactus), which eventually became the focus of the operation, was not even mentioned in the early directive and only later took on the operation-name Watchtower.[15]

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) had occupied Tulagi in May 1942 and had constructed a seaplane base nearby. Allied concern grew when, in early July 1942, the IJN began constructing a large airfield at Lunga Point on nearby Guadalcanal—from such a base Japanese long-range bombers would threaten the sea lines of communication from the West Coast of the Americas to the populous East Coast of Australia. By August 1942, the Japanese had about 900 naval troops on Tulagi and nearby islands and 2,800 personnel (2,200 being Korean forced laborers and trustees as well as Japanese construction specialists) on Guadalcanal. These bases would protect Japan's major base at Rabaul, threaten Allied supply and communication lines and establish a staging area for a planned offensive against Fiji, New Caledonia and Samoa (Operation FS). The Japanese planned to deploy 45 fighters and 60 bombers to Guadalcanal. In the overall strategy for 1942 these aircraft could provide air cover for Japanese naval forces advancing farther into the South Pacific.[18]

The Allied plan to invade the southern Solomons was conceived by U.S. Admiral Ernest King, Commander in Chief, United States Fleet. He proposed the offensive to deny the use of the islands by the Japanese as bases to threaten the supply routes between the United States and Australia and to use them as starting points. With U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's tacit consent, King also advocated the invasion of Guadalcanal. Because the United States supported Great Britain's proposal that priority be given to defeating Germany before Japan, the Pacific theater had to compete for personnel and resources with the European theater.[19]

An early obstacle was a desire by both the army and Roosevelt to initiate action in Europe.[20] In addition, it was unclear who would command the campaign: Tulagi lay in the area under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, whereas the Santa Cruz Islands lay in Admiral Chester W. Nimitz's Pacific Ocean Area, which would also supply almost all offensive forces that would prepare and be supplied and covered from that area.[21] Both problems were overcome, and the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, General George C. Marshall, gave the operation his full support, even if MacArthur's command could not lend support and the navy had to take full responsibility.[22][23] As a result, and in order to preserve the unity of command, the boundary between MacArthur's Southwest Pacific area and Nimitz's Pacific Ocean area was shifted 60 miles (97 km) to 360 miles (580 km) to the west effective 1 August 1942.[21]

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff established the following objectives for 1942–1943: that Guadalcanal would be taken, in conjunction with an Allied offensive in New Guinea under Douglas MacArthur, to capture the Admiralty Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago, including the major Japanese base at Rabaul. The directive held that the eventual goal was the American reconquest of the Philippines.[24] The U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff created the South Pacific theater, with Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley taking command on 19 June 1942, to direct the offensive in the Solomons. Admiral Chester Nimitz, based at Pearl Harbor, was designated as overall Allied commander in chief for Pacific forces.[25]

Task force

The airfield at Lunga Point on Guadalcanal under construction by Japanese and conscripted Korean laborers in July 1942

In preparation for the offensive in the Pacific in May 1942, U.S. Marine Major General Alexander Vandegrift was ordered to move his 1st Marine Division from the United States to New Zealand. Other Allied land, naval and air force units were sent to establish or reinforce bases in Fiji, Samoa, New Hebrides and New Caledonia.[26]

Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, was selected as the headquarters and the main base for the offensive, codenamed Operation Watchtower, with the commencement date set for 7 August 1942. At first, the Allied offensive was planned just for Tulagi and the Santa Cruz Islands, omitting Guadalcanal. After Allied reconnaissance discovered the Japanese airfield construction efforts on Guadalcanal, its capture was added to the plan and the Santa Cruz operation was (eventually) dropped.[27] The Japanese were aware, via signals intelligence, of the large-scale movement of Allied forces in the South Pacific area but concluded that the Allies were reinforcing Australia and perhaps Port Moresby in New Guinea.[28]

The Watchtower force, numbering 75 warships and transports (of vessels from the U.S. and Australia), assembled near Fiji on 26 July 1942 and engaged in one rehearsal landing prior to leaving for Guadalcanal on 31 July.[29] The commander of the Allied expeditionary force was U.S. Vice Admiral Frank Fletcher, Commander Task Force 61 (whose flag was on the aircraft carrier USS Saratoga). Commanding the amphibious forces was U.S. Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner. Vandegrift led the 16,000 Allied (primarily U.S. Marine) infantry earmarked for the landings.[30]

The troops sent to Guadalcanal were fresh from military training and armed with bolt-action M1903 Springfield rifles and a meager 10-day supply of ammunition. Because of the need to get them into battle quickly, the operation planners had reduced their supplies from 90 days to only 60. The men of the 1st Marine Division began referring to the coming battle as "Operation Shoestring".[31]