Far-sightedness

Far-sightedness
Other namesHypermetropia, hyperopia, longsightedness, long-sightedness[1]
Hypermetropia color.svg
Far-sightedness without (top) and with lens correction (bottom)
SpecialtyOphthalmology
SymptomsClose objects appear blurry[2]
ComplicationsAccommodative dysfunction, binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, strabismus[3]
CausesToo short an eyeball, misshapen lens or cornea[2]
Risk factorsFamily history[2]
Diagnostic methodEye exam[2]
Differential diagnosisAmblyopia, retrobulbar optic neuropathy, retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento[4]
TreatmentEyeglasses, contact lenses, surgery[2]
Frequency~7.5% (US)[2]

Far-sightedness, also known as hyperopia, is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina.[2] This results in close objects appearing blurry, while far objects may appear normal.[2] As the condition worsens, objects at all distances may be blurry.[2] Other symptoms may include headaches and eye strain.[2] People may also experience accommodative dysfunction, binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, and strabismus.[3]

The cause is an imperfection of the eyes.[2] Often it occurs when the eyeball is too short, or the lens or cornea is misshapen.[2] Risk factors include a family history of the condition, diabetes, certain medications, and tumors around the eye.[2][4] It is a type of refractive error.[2] Diagnosis is based on an eye exam.[2]

Management can occur with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery.[2] Glasses are easiest while contact lenses can provide a wider field of vision.[2] Surgery works by changing the shape of the cornea.[2] Far-sightedness primarily affects young children, with rates of 8% at 6 years and 1% at 15 years.[5] It then becomes more common again after the age of 40, affecting about half of people.[4]

Signs and symptoms

Far-sighted vision on left, normal vision on right

The signs and symptoms of far-sightedness are blurry vision, headaches, and eye strain.[2] The common symptom is eye strain. Difficulty seeing with both eyes (binocular vision) may occur, as well as difficulty with depth perception.[1]

Complications

Far-sightedness can have rare complications such as strabismus and amblyopia. At a young age, severe far-sightedness can cause the child to have double vision as a result of "over-focusing".[6]