Arab Republic of Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية
|Arabic:||Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʻArabīyah|
|Egyptian:||Gomhoreyyet Maṣr el-ʿArabeyya|
and largest city
30°2′N 31°13′E / 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033; 31.217
|National language||Egyptian Arabic[a]|
|Religion ||See Religion in Egypt|
|Abdel Fattah el-Sisi|
|Ali Abdel Aal|
|Legislature||House of Representatives|
|c. 3150 BC|
|9 July 1805|
|28 February 1922|
|23 July 1952|
|18 June 1953|
|18 January 2014|
|1,010,408 km2 (390,121 sq mi) (29th)|
• Water (%)
|96/km2 (248.6/sq mi) (118th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
| $1.391 trillion (21st)|
• Per capita
| $14,028 (94th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
| $300 billion (43rd)|
• Per capita
| $3,019 (130th)|
|Gini (2015)|| 31.8|
medium · 51st
|HDI (2017)|| 0.696|
medium · 115th
|Currency||Egyptian pound (E£) (EGP)|
|Time zone||UTC+2[c] (EET)|
|ISO 3166 code||EG|
Egypt (/ (listen) EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصر Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر Maṣr, Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally defined. Egypt is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.
Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.
From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, and many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, and declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a semi-presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, which has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian.
Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, and is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt overtook South Africa and became Africa's second largest economy (after Nigeria). Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The English name "Egypt" is derived from the Ancient Greek
"), via Middle French
"Egypte" and Latin
". It is reflected in early Greek Linear B
tablets as "a-ku-pi-ti-yo". The adjective "aigýpti-"/"aigýptios" was borrowed into Coptic as "gyptios
", and from there into Arabic
", back formed into "قبط
"), whence English "Copt
". The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian (Amarna) Hikuptah
"Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian
⟩), meaning "home of the ka
(soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah
"Miṣr" (Arabic pronunciation: [mesˤɾ]; "مِصر") is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" (Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mɑsˤɾ]; مَصر) is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם" ("Mitzráyim"). The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" ("miṣru") related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier".
The ancient Egyptian name of the country was km.t
, which means black land, likely referring to the fertile
black soils of the Nile flood
plains, distinct from the deshret
⟩), or "red land" of the desert
This name is commonly vocalised as Kemet
, but was probably pronounced [kuːmat]
in ancient Egyptian.
The name is realised as kēme
in the Coptic
stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as Χημία
Another name was ⟨tꜣ-mry
⟩ "land of the riverbank".
The names of Upper and Lower Egypt
⟩) "sedgeland" and Ta-Mehew
⟩) "northland", respectively.