Cumberland

Cumberland
Cumberland flag.svg
Flag
EnglandCumberlandTrad.png
Area
 • 1831969,490 acres (3,923.4 km2)1831 Census cited in Vision of Britain – Ancient county data
 • 1911973,086 acres (3,937.94 km2)
 • 1961973,146 acres (3,938.18 km2)
Population
 • 1911265,746 Vision of Britain – Cumberland population (density and area)
 • 1961294,303
Density
 • 19110.27/acre
 • 19610.3/acre
History
 • OriginHistoric
 • Created12th Century
 • Abolished1974
 • Succeeded byCumbria
StatusAdministrative county (1889–1974)
Ceremonial county (until 1974)
Chapman codeCUL
GovernmentCumberland County Council (1889–1974)
 • HQCarlisle
Subdivisions
 • TypeWards (ancient)

Cumberland (d/ KUM-bər-lənd) is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. It was bordered by Northumberland to the east, County Durham to the southeast, Westmorland and Lancashire to the south, and the Scottish counties of Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshire to the north. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974 (excluding Carlisle from 1914) and now forms part of Cumbria.

Early history

The first record of the term "Cumberland" appears in 945, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the area was ceded to Malcolm I by King Edmund of England. As with Cymru, the native Welsh name for Wales, the names Cumberland and Cumbria are derived from *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which originally meant "compatriots".[1][2] At the time of the Domesday Book in 1086 most of the future county remained part of Scotland although some villages in the ancient district of Millom, which were the possessions of the Earl of Northumbria, were included in the Yorkshire section with the Furness region.[3]

In 1092 King William Rufus of England invaded the Carlisle district, settling it with colonists. He created an Earldom of Carlisle, and granted the territory to Ranulf Meschyn. In 1133 Carlisle was made the see of a new diocese, largely identical with the area of the earldom. However, on the death of King Henry I in 1135, the area was regained by Scotland's King David I. He was able to consolidate his power and made Carlisle one of his chief seats of government, while England descended into a lengthy civil war. In 1157 Henry II of England resumed possession of the area from Malcolm IV of Scots, and formed two new counties from the former earldom: Westmorland and " Carliol" although Westmorland also included areas the former Honour or Earldom of Lancaster. The lead and silver-mining area of Alston, previously associated with the Liberty of Tynedale was later also added to the new county of Carliol for financial reasons.[4] By 1177 the county of Carliol was known as Cumberland.[5] The border between England and Scotland was made permanent by the Treaty of York in 1237.