People's Republic of China
Land controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; land claimed but not controlled shown in light green.
39°55′N 116°23′E / 39°55′N 116°23′E / 39.917; 116.383
|Largest city||Shanghai (metropolitan area and urban area)|
Chongqing (city proper)
|Official languages||Standard Chinese[a]|
|Recognised regional languages|
|Official script||Simplified Chinese[b]|
|Ethnic groups |
|Religion ||See Religion in China|
|Government||Unitary one-party socialist republic|
|Legislature||National People's Congress|
|c. 2070 BCE|
|1 January 1912|
|1 October 1949|
|4 December 1982|
|20 December 1999|
|9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)[f] (3rd/4th)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
|1,403,500,365  (1st)|
• 2010 census
|145/km2 (375.5/sq mi) (83rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$27.331 trillion (1st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$14.216 trillion (2nd)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2017)|| 0.752|
high · 86th
|Currency||Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[h] (CNY)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN|
China (Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó; literally: 'Central State'), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion in 2017. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third or fourth largest country by total area.[j] Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the world's first civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and established the first Chinese empire. The succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BCE until 220 CE, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern Song (960–1127) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, when the Republic of China (ROC) replaced the Qing dynasty. China as a whole was ravaged by feudal warlordism and Japan during World War II. The subsequent Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China led by Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China, on mainland China while the Kuomintang-led nationalist government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed to this day.
China is a unitary one-party socialist republic and is one of the few remaining countries openly endorsing communism. Political dissidents, human rights groups and independent outside observers have denounced and criticized the Chinese government of human rights abuses, suppression of religious and ethnic minorities, censorship and mass surveillance. The Chinese government has responded to this criticism by arguing that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights, and that the notion of human rights should take into account a country's present level of economic development.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates consistently above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. According to official data, China's GDP in 2018 was 90 trillion Yuan ($13.28 trillion). Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army, the People's Liberation Army, and second-largest defense budget. The PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is also a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, and the G20. China has been characterized as an emerging superpower, mainly because of its massive population, economy, and military.
The word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves. It has been traced through Portuguese, Malay, and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India.
"China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation[k] of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.[l] Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn (چین), which was in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna (चीन). Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century BCE) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century BCE). In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived ultimately from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE). Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature. The word may have originally referred to a state such as Yelang. Later, the meaning transferred to China as a whole. The origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary.
The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" (Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó). The shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó (中国), from zhōng ("central") and guó ("state"),[m] a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne.[n] It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing. It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is also translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.