Chaulukya dynasty

Chaulukyas of Gujarat

c. 940 CE–1244 CE
CapitalAnahilavada (modern Patan)
Religion
Shaivism, Jainism
GovernmentMonarchy
• c. 940 – c. 995
Mularaja
• c. 1240 – c. 1244
Tribhuvanapala
History 
• Established
c. 940 CE
• Disestablished
1244 CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Chavda dynasty
Chalukyas of Lata
Vaghela dynasty
Cutch State
Today part ofIndia
Find spots of inscriptions issued during the Chaulukya rule.[1]

The Chaulukya dynasty (IAST: Caulukya), also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat, ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India, between c. 940 CE and c. 1244 CE. Their capital was located at Anahilavada (modern Patan). At times, their rule extended to the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh. The medieval legends describe them as Agnivanshi Rajputs, and they are also known as the Solanki dynasty in the vernacular literature.

Mularaja, the founder of the dynasty, supplanted the last ruler of the Chapotkata dynasty (Chavda) around 940 CE. His successors fought several battles with the neighbouring rulers such as the Chudasamas, the Paramaras and the Chahamanas of Shakambhari. During the reign of Bhima I, the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud invaded the kingdom and raided the Somnath temple during 1024-1025 CE. The Chaulukyas soon recovered, and the kingdom reached its zenith under the rule of Jayasimha Siddharaja and Kumarapala in the 12th century. Several minor dynasties, such as the Chahamanas of Jalor and the Chahamanas of Naddula, served as Chaulukya vassals during this period. After Kumarapala's death, the kingdom was gradually weakened by internal rebellions; uprisings by feudatories; and invasions by the Paramaras, the Ghurids, the Yadavas and others. Taking advantage of this, the Vaghelas, who had earlier served as Chaulukya generals, usurped the power and established a new dynasty in the 1240s.

Several princely state rulers of the Solanki clan claimed descent from the Chaulukyas.

Name

The dynasty used the self-designation "Chaulukya" in all but four of its records.[2] The four exceptions are:[3]

Hemachandra, a Jain scholar in the Chaulukya court, generally used the terms "Chaulukya" and "Chulukya".[3] His Dvyasraya Mahakavya mentions the variants "Chulakya", "Chalukka", and "Chulukka"; his Kumarapala-Charita mentions another variant "Chuluga". The Chaulukya court poet Someshvara describes the dynasty as "Chaulukya" (in Kirti-Kaumudi) and "Chulukya" (in the Abu inscription of Vastupala and Tejapala).[4]

"Solanki" or "Solankhi" is a vernacular form of the term.[5]