Charles I of Anjou

Charles I
Palazzo Reale di Napoli - Carlo I d'Angiò.jpg
His statue at the Royal Palace (Naples).
King of Sicily
Contested by Peter I from 1282.
Reign1266–1285
Coronation5 January 1266
PredecessorManfred
SuccessorPeter I (island of Sicily)
Charles II (mainland territories)
Count of Anjou and Maine
Reign1246–1285
SuccessorCharles II
Count of Provence
Reign1246–1285
PredecessorBeatrice
SuccessorCharles II
Count of Forcalquier
Reign1246–1248
1256–1285
PredecessorBeatrice I
Beatrice II
SuccessorBeatrice II
Charles II
Prince of Achaea
Reign1278–1285
PredecessorWilliam of Villehardouin
SuccessorCharles II
Bornearly 1226/1227
Died7 January 1285 (Aged 57–59)
Foggia, Kingdom of Naples
Burial
SpouseBeatrice of Provence
(m. 1246, d. 1267)
Margaret of Burgundy (m. 1268)
Issue
More
Beatrice, Latin Empress
Charles II, King of Naples
Philip
Elisabeth, Queen of Hungary
HouseAnjou-Sicily
FatherLouis VIII, King of France
MotherBlanche of Castile

Charles I (early 1226/1227 – 7 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou. He was Count of Provence (1246–85) and Forcalquier (1246–48, 1256–85) in the Holy Roman Empire, Count of Anjou and Maine (1246–85) in France; he was also King of Sicily (1266–85) and Prince of Achaea (1278–85). In 1272, he was proclaimed King of Albania; and in 1277 he purchased a claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

The youngest son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile, Charles was destined for a Church career until the early 1240s. He acquired Provence and Forcalquier through his marriage to their heiress, Beatrice. His attempts to secure comital rights brought him into conflict with his mother-in-law, Beatrice of Savoy, and the nobility. He received Anjou and Maine from his brother, Louis IX of France, in appanage. He accompanied Louis during the Seventh Crusade to Egypt. Shortly after he returned to Provence in 1250, Charles forced three wealthy free imperial citiesMarseilles, Arles and Avignon—to acknowledge his suzerainty.

Charles supported Margaret II, Countess of Flanders and Hainaut, against her eldest son, John, in exchange for Hainaut in 1253. Two years later Louis IX persuaded him to renounce the county, but compensated him by instructing Margaret to pay him 160,000 marks. Charles forced the rebellious Provençal nobles and towns into submission and expanded his suzerainty over a dozen towns and lordships in the Kingdom of Arles. In 1263, after years of negotiations, he accepted the offer of the Holy See to seize the Kingdom of Sicily from the Hohenstaufens. This kingdom included, in addition to the island of Sicily, southern Italy to well north of Naples and was known as the Regno. Pope Urban IV declared a crusade against the incumbent Manfred of Sicily and assisted Charles to raise funds for the military campaign.

Charles was crowned king in Rome on 5 January 1266. He annihilated Manfred's army and occupied the Regno almost without resistance. His victory over Manfred's young nephew, Conradin, at the Battle of Tagliacozzo in 1268 strengthened his rule. In 1270 he took part in the Eighth Crusade (which had been organized by Louis IX) and forced the Hafsid caliph of Tunis to pay a yearly tribute to him. Charles's victories secured his undisputed leadership among the popes' Italian partisans (known as Guelphs), but his influence on papal elections and his strong military presence in Italy disturbed the popes. They tried to channel his ambitions towards other territories and assisted him in acquiring claims to Achaea, Jerusalem and Arles through treaties. In 1281 Pope Martin IV authorised Charles to launch a crusade against the Byzantine Empire. Charles' ships were gathering at Messina, ready to begin the campaign when a riot—known as the Sicilian Vespers—broke out on 30 March 1282. It put an end to Charles' rule on the island of Sicily, but he was able to defend the mainland territories (or the Kingdom of Naples) with the support of France and the Holy See.

Early life

Childhood

Charles was the youngest child of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile.[1] The date of his birth was not recorded, but he was probably a posthumous son, born in early 1227.[note 1][2][3] Charles was Louis's only surviving son to be "born in the purple" (after his father's coronation), a fact he often emphasised in his youth, according to Matthew Paris.[2] He was the first Capet to be named for Charlemagne.[2]

Louis willed that his youngest sons were to be prepared for a career in the Roman Catholic Church.[2] The details of Charles' tuition are unknown, but he received a good education.[4][5] He understood the principal Catholic doctrines and could identify errors in Latin texts.[6] His passion for poetry, medical sciences and law is well documented.[4][5]

Charles said that their mother had a strong impact on her children's education.[1] In reality, Blanche was fully engaged in state administration, and could likely spare little time for her youngest children.[3][4] Charles lived at the court of a brother, Robert I, Count of Artois, from 1237.[4] About four years later he was put into the care of his youngest brother, Alphonse, Count of Poitiers.[4] His participation in his brothers' military campaign against Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, in 1242 showed that he was no longer destined for a Church career.[4]

Provence and Anjou

A shield decorated with lilies and an emblem resembling the strap crossing the horses' chest
Charles' coat-of-arms (Anjou ancient): France ancient with label Gules as charge

Raymond Berengar V of Provence died in August 1245,[7] bequeathing Provence and Forcalquier to his youngest daughter, Beatrice, allegedly because he had given generous dowries to her three sisters.[8][9] The dowries were actually not fully discharged,[5] causing two of her sisters, Margaret (Louis IX's wife) and Eleanor (the wife of Henry III of England), to believe that they had been unlawfully disinherited.[9] Their mother, Beatrice of Savoy, claimed that Raymond Berengar had willed the usufruct of Provence to her.[7][9]

Emperor Frederick II, Count Raymond VII of Toulouse and other neighbouring rulers proposed themselves or their sons as husbands for the young countess.[10] Her mother put her under the protection of the Holy See.[10] Louis IX and Margaret suggested that Beatrice should be given in marriage to Charles.[9] To secure the support of France against Frederick II, Pope Innocent IV accepted their proposal.[9] Charles hurried to Aix-en-Provence at the head of an army to prevent other suitors from attacking.[9][11] He married Beatrice on 31 January 1246.[9][12] Provence was a part of the Kingdom of Arles and so of the Holy Roman Empire,[13] but Charles never swore fealty to the emperor.[14] He ordered a survey of the counts' rights and revenues, outraging both his subjects and his mother-in-law, who regarded this action as an attack against her rights.[13][15]

Being a younger child, destined for a church career, Charles had not received an appanage (a hereditary county or duchy) from his father.[16] Louis VIII had willed that his fourth son, John, should receive Anjou and Maine upon reaching the age of majority, but John died in 1232.[17] Louis IX knighted Charles at Melun in May 1246 and three months later bestowed Anjou and Maine on him.[18][19] Charles rarely visited his two counties and appointed baillies (or regents) to administer them.[20]

While Charles was absent from Provence, Marseilles, Arles and Avignon—three wealthy cities, directly subject to the emperor—formed a league and appointed a Provençal nobleman, Barral of Baux, as the commander of their combined armies.[13] Charles' mother-in-law put the disobedient Provençals under her protection.[13] Charles could not deal with the rebels as he was about to join his brother's crusade.[13] To pacify his mother-in-law he acknowledged her right to rule Forcalquier and granted a third of his revenues from Provence to her.[13]

Seventh Crusade

A mounted knight fights against footmen, while a crowned man is carried from the battlefield
The crusaders' defeat in the Battle of Al Mansurah in Egypt

In December 1244 Louis IX took a vow to lead a crusade.[21] Ignoring their mother's strong opposition his three brothers—Robert, Alphonse and Charles—also took the cross.[22] Preparations for the crusade lasted for years, with the crusaders embarking at Aigues-Mortes on 25 August 1248.[21][23] After spending several months in Cyprus they invaded Egypt on 5 June 1249.[24] They captured Damietta and decided to attack Cairo in November.[25] During their advance Jean de Joinville noted Charles' personal courage which saved dozens of crusaders' lives.[26] They were unable to reach Cairo because Egyptian troops surrounded them on 6 April 1250.[27] Charles was captured along with his brothers.[26] They were released in exchange of 800,000 bezants and the surrender of Damietta on 6 May.[27]

During their voyage to Acre,[27] Charles outraged Louis by gambling while the king was mourning the recent death of their brother, Robert of Artois.[26] Louis remained in the Holy Land, but Charles returned to France in October 1250.[13]