Carniola

Carniola
The Carniolan Provincial Assembly Building in Ljubljana, also the seat of the Regional Committee and the Governor of the Duchy of Carniola, today the seat of the University of Ljubljana
The Carniolan Provincial Assembly Building in Ljubljana, also the seat of the Regional Committee and the Governor of the Duchy of Carniola, today the seat of the University of Ljubljana
1791 map of Carniola
1791 map of Carniola
Coordinates: 41°26′05″N 25°07′58″E / 41°26′05″N 25°07′58″E / 41.4347; 25.1328
CountrySlovenia
Elevation
400 m (1,300 ft)

Carniola (Slovene and Croatian: Kranjska;[note 1] German: Krain; Italian: Carniola; Hungarian: Krajna) was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the region still tend to identify with its traditional parts Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola (with the sub-part of White Carniola), and to a lesser degree with Inner Carniola. In 1991, 47% of the population of Slovenia lived within the borders of the former Duchy of Carniola.

Traditional regions of Slovenia
Borders of the Historical Habsburgian Lands in the Republic of Slovenia.png
1 Slovenian Littoral; Carniola: 2a Upper
2b Inner, 2c Lower
3 Carinthia; 4 Styria; 5 Prekmurje

Overview

A state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Austrian Circle and a duchy in the hereditary possession of the Habsburgs, later part of the Austrian Empire and of Austria-Hungary, the region was a crown land from 1849, when it was also subdivided into Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, and Inner Carniola, until 1918. From the second half of the 13th century, its capital was Ljubljana (Laibach). Previous overlords of Carniola had their seats in Kranj (Krainburg) and Kamnik (Stein), which are therefore sometimes referred to as its earlier capitals. Nowadays, its territory (in the extent at its dissolution) is almost entirely located in Slovenia, except for a small part in northwest Italy, around Fusine in Valromana.[3][note 2] Carniola in its final form, established in 1815,[4] encompassed 9,904 km2 (3,824 sq mi).[5] In 1914, before the beginning of World War I, it had a population of slightly under 530,000 inhabitants, of whom 95% were Slovenes.[4]