Batu Khan

Batu
Khan
Shahanshah
Tsar[1]
Цар Батий на престолі.jpg
Batu Khan on the throne of the Golden Horde.
Khan of the Golden Horde
Reign1227–1255
Coronation1224/1225 or 1227
PredecessorJochi
SuccessorSartak
Born1205 (1205)
Mongolia
Died1255 (aged 47–48)
Sarai Batu
Burial1255 in Khaganate
ConsortBoraqchin Khatun
IssueSinhoto Of China, Sartak
HouseBorjigin
DynastyGolden Horde
FatherJochi
MotherUkhaa Ujin of the Onggirat
ReligionTengrism

Batu Khan (n/; Mongolian: Бат хаан, Bat haan, Tatar: Бату хан, Chinese: 拔都 Bá dū, Russian: хан Баты́й, Greek: Μπατού; c. 1205–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Mongolian: Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu,[2] was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde, which ruled Rus', Volga Bulgaria, Cumania, and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies of Poland and Hungary. "Batu" or "Bat" literally means "firm" in the Mongolian language. After the deaths of Genghis Khan's sons, he became the most respected prince called agha (elder brother) in the Mongol Empire.

Early years

After his son Jochi's death, Genghis Khan assigned Jochi's appanages to his sons. But the Great Khan installed Batu as Khan of the Golden Horde (also known as the Ulus of Jochi or Kipchak Khanate). Jochi's eldest son, Orda Khan, also agreed that Batu should succeed their father. Genghis Khan's youngest brother Temüge attended the coronation ceremony as an official representative of Genghis.[3] When Genghis Khan died in 1227, he left 4,000 Mongol men to Jochi's family. Jochi's lands were divided between Batu and his older brother Orda. Orda's White Horde ruled the lands roughly between the Volga river and Lake Balkhash, while Batu's Horde ruled the lands west of the Volga.

In 1229, Ögedei dispatched three tumens under Kukhdei and Sundei to conquer the tribes on the lower Ural River. According to Abulghazi, Batu joined Ögedei's military campaign against the Jin dynasty in North China while his younger brother was fighting the Bashkirs, the Cumans, the Bulghars and the Alans in the west. Despite heavy resistance of their enemies, the Mongols conquered major cities of the Jurchens and made the Bashkirs their ally. In the 1230s, Ögedei distributed lands in Shanxi, China to Batu and the family of Jochi, but they appointed their officials under the supervision of the Imperial governor likewise in Khorasan, Persia.[4]