Battle of Mohi

Battle of Mohi
Part of the First Mongol invasion of Hungary
Battle of Mohi 1241.PNG
Date11 April 1241
Location
Sajó River, near Muhi, Hungary
ResultDecisive Mongol victory
Belligerents

Hungary Arms.svg Kingdom of Hungary
Coat of arms of Croatia 1495.svg Kingdom of Croatia
Cross of the Knights Templar.svg Knights Templar


Minor belligerent:
Coat of arms of the archduchy of Austria.svg Duchy of Austria
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde
(Mongol Empire)
Commanders and leaders
Hungary Arms.svg Béla IV of Hungary
Coat of arms of Croatia 1495.svg Coloman of Slavonia  DOW)
Hungary Arms.svg Ugrin Csák  
Hungary Arms.svg Matthias Rátót  
Coat of arms of the archduchy of Austria.svg Frederick II of Austria
Hungary Arms.svg Denis Tomaj  
Cross of the Knights Templar.svg Rembald de Voczon
Batu Khan
Subutai
Shiban
Berke
Boroldai
Units involved
primarily light cavalry
Knights Templar
Crossbowmen
Infantry
Cavalry, predominantly horse archers and lancers[1]
Stone throwers
Possibly Chinese firearm units and other gunpowder units
Strength
80,000[2]
50,000[3]
25,000[4][5][6]
~15,000-30,000 cavalry (contemporary sources)[7]
Other estimations:
70,000[8]
50,000[3]
20,000[9]
Casualties and losses
~10,000 (contemporary sources)[10]
Most of the army[11]
Few hundreds[12]
Very heavy[13][14][15][16]

The Battle of Mohi (today Muhi), also known as Battle of the Sajó River[15] or Battle of the Tisza River (11 April 1241), was the main battle between the Mongol Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary during the Mongol invasion of Europe. It took place at Muhi, southwest of the Sajó River. After the invasion, Hungary lay in ruins. Nearly half of the inhabited places had been destroyed by the invading armies. Around 15–25 percent of the population was lost, mostly in lowland areas, especially in the Great Hungarian Plain, the southern reaches of the Hungarian plain in the area now called the Banat and in southern Transylvania.[17]

Background

The Mongol invasion of Europe

The Mongols attacked Eastern Europe with five distinct armies. Two of them attacked through Poland in order to protect the flank from Bela's Polish cousins, winning several victories. Most notably, they defeated the army of Duke Henry II the Pious of Silesia at Legnica. A southern army attacked Transylvania, defeated the voivod and crushed the Transylvanian armies. The main army led by Khan Batu and Subutai attacked Hungary through the fortified Verecke Pass and annihilated the army led by Denis Tomaj, the count palatine on 12 March 1241, while the final army under Batu's brother Shiban marched in an arc north of the main force.[18] Prior to the invasion, King Bela had personally supervised the construction of dense natural barriers along Hungary's eastern border intending to slow the Mongol advance and obstruct their movement. However, the Mongols possessed specialized units who cleared the paths with great rapidity, removing the obstacles in just 3 days.[19] Combined with the extreme speed of the Mongol advance, called "lightning" by a European observer, the Hungarians lacked time to properly group their forces.[20]

Warnings and Hungarian preparation

In 1223, the expanding Mongol Empire defeated an group of semi- allied Russian city states, at the time known as Rus, at the Kalka River using their famous tactic of the feigned retreat under Subutai and Jebe. This was part of their great cavalry raid to explore the lands beyond their knowledge under the direction of Genghis Khan. The defeated princes of Rus that were captured by the Mongols were crushed alive under a victory platform following the battle. At this time, the Mongols were purely an expeditionary force in Europe, and did not lay siege unto major cities such as Kiev until decades later under the direction of Genghis Khan’s successor, Ogedei.


Hungary had tried to convert the Cumans to Christianity and expand its influence over them for several decades beforehand. The Hungarian King Béla IV even began to use the title "King of Cumania". When Cuman refugees (ca. 40,000 people) sought refuge in his kingdom, it seemed that at least a portion of the Cumans had accepted Hungarian rule. The Mongols saw Hungary as a rival, and the Cuman migration to Hungary as a casus belli. In their ultimatum they also blamed Hungary for "missing envoys".[21]

The Mongolian threat appeared during a time of political turmoil in Hungary. Traditionally, the base of royal power consisted of vast estates owned as royal property. Under King Andrew II, donations of land to nobles by the crown reached a new peak: whole counties were donated. As Andrew II said, "The best measure of royal generosity is measureless".[This quote needs a citation] After Béla IV inherited his father's throne he began to reconfiscate Andrew’s donations and to execute or expel his advisers. He also denied the nobles' right of personal hearings and accepted only written petitions to his chancellery. He even had the chairs of the council chamber taken away in order to force everybody to stand in his presence. His actions caused great disaffection among the nobles.[citation needed] The newly arrived and grateful Cumans gave the king more power (and increased prestige with the Church for converting them) but also caused more friction. The nomadic Cumans did not easily integrate with the settled Hungarians and the nobles were shocked that the king supported the Cumans in quarrels between the two.[citation needed]

King Béla began to mobilise his army and ordered all of his troops, including the Cumans, to the city of Pest. Frederick II, Duke of Austria and Styria, also arrived there to help him. At this moment, the conflict between Cumans and Hungarians caused riots and the Cuman khan—who had been under the personal protection of the king—was murdered. Some sources mention the role of Duke Frederick in inciting this riot, but his true role is unknown. Another possibility is that Mongol spies helped spread rumors of the supposed Cuman-Mongol alliance to cause panic, similar to what the Mongols had done in the invasion of Khwarezm. The Cumans believed that they had been betrayed, and left the country to the south, pillaging all the way. The full mobilisation was unsuccessful; many contingents were unable to reach Pest; some were destroyed by Mongols before they arrived, some by renegade Cumans. Many nobles refused to take part in the campaign because they hated the king and desired his downfall. The loss of the Cumans was painful for Béla, because they were the one army in Europe who had experience fighting the Mongols.[22]