Battle of Formigny

Battle of Formigny
Part of the Hundred Years' War
Vigiles du roi Charles VII 32.jpg
The Battle of Formigny from Les Vigiles de Charles VII by Martial d'Auvergne
Date15 April 1450
Location
ResultDecisive French victory
Belligerents
France moderne.svg Kingdom of France
Armoiries Bretagne - Arms of Brittany.svg Duchy of Brittany
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Kingdom of England
Commanders and leaders
Armoiries Comtes Clermont Beauvaisis.png Jean de Clermont
Blason Arthur III de Bretagne (1393-1425) comte de Richemont.svg Arthur de Richemont
Coat of Arms of Sir Thomas Kiriell, KG.png Thomas Kyriell POW)
Strength
3,000 French
1,200–2,000 Bretons
(reinforcements)
4,000–5,000
Casualties and losses
500–1,000 killed2,000–3,754 killed
900–1,400 captured

The Battle of Formigny, fought on 15 April 1450, was a major battle of the Hundred Years' War between England and France. The destruction of England's last army in Normandy in the battle and the decisive French victory paved the way for the capture of the remaining English strongholds in Normandy.[1][2]

Background

The French, under Charles VII, had taken the time offered by the Treaty of Tours in 1444 to reorganize and reinvigorate their armies.[3] The English, without clear leadership from the weak Henry VI, were scattered and dangerously weak.[4] When the French broke the truce in June 1449 they were in a much improved position. Pont-Audemer, Pont-L'Evêque and Lisieux fell in August and much of Normandy was retaken by October. Cutting north and east the Bureau brothers oversaw the capture of Rouen (October 1449), Harfleur (December 1449), Honfleur and Fresnoy (January 1450), before moving on to invade Caen.[5]

The English had gathered a small army during the winter of 1449. Numbering around 3,400 men, it was dispatched from Portsmouth to Cherbourg under the command of Sir Thomas Kyriell. Upon landing on 15 March 1450, Kyriell's army was reinforced by Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and lieutenant general of Normandy with forces drawn from Norman garrisons under Sir Matthew Gough, Sir Robert de Vere and Sir Henry Norbury.[5]