Battle of Ain Jalut

Battle of Ain Jalut
Part of the Mongol invasions of the Levant
Campaign of the Battle of Ain Jalut 1260.svg
Date3 September 1260

Mamluk victory

Territories captured by the Mongols are returned to the Mamluks.
Mameluke Flag.svg Mamluk SultanateIl-Khanate Flag.svg Ilkhanate
Georgia (country) Kingdom of Georgia
Rubenid Flag.svg Cilician Armenia
Commanders and leaders
Mameluke Flag.svg Saif ad-Din Qutuz
Mameluke Flag.svg Baibars
Units involved
Light cavalry and horse archers, heavy cavalry, infantryMongol lancers and horse archers, Cilician Armenian troops, Georgian contingent, local Ayyubid contingents
Casualties and losses
Unknown1,500 killed[9]

The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth,[10] not far from the site of Zir'in.

Preceding events

When Möngke Khan became Great Khan in 1251, he immediately set out to implement his grandfather Genghis Khan's plan for a world empire. To lead the task of subduing the nations of the West, he selected his brother, another of Genghis Khan's grandsons, Hulagu Khan.[11]

Assembling the army took five years, and it was not until 1256 that Hulagu was prepared to begin the invasions. Operating from the Mongol base in Persia, Hulagu proceeded south. Möngke Khan had ordered good treatment for those who yielded without resistance, and destruction for those who did not. In this way Hulagu and his army had conquered some of the most powerful and longstanding dynasties of the time. Other countries in the Mongols' path submitted to Mongol authority, and contributed forces to the Mongol army. By the time that the Mongols reached Baghdad, their army included Cilician Armenians, and even some Frankish forces from the submissive Principality of Antioch. The Hashshashin in Persia fell, the 500-year-old Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad was destroyed (see Battle of Baghdad), and so too fell the Ayyubid dynasty in Damascus. Hulagu's plan was to then proceed southwards through the Kingdom of Jerusalem towards the Mamluk Sultanate, to confront the major Islamic power.[11]

During the Mongol attack on the Mamluks in the Middle East, most of the Mamluks were Kipchaks, and the Golden Horde's supply of Kipchaks replenished the Mamluk armies and helped them fight off the Mongols.[12]