A bronze ceremonial vessel made around the 9th century, one of the bronzes found at Igbo-Ukwu
Around the 9th century the Edo people of what is now southeastern Nigeria developed bronze casts of humans, animals, and mythical creatures. These bronzes, which were used as vessels, amulets, pendants, and sacrificial tools, are among the earliest made bronzes ever found in Nigeria. Most items were part of a burial of a nobleman culture in the northern part of benin empire. Evidence of long distance trade between benin empire and poutugist was also discovered through the thousands of glass beads found at Old Cairo at the workshops of Fustat.
The development of the Benin Kingdom can be attributed to the proficiency at advanced metallurgy seen in the bronze jewelry crafted by local artisans.
The Ghana (Wagadu) Empire (before c. 830 until c. 1235) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and western Mali. It is considered the first of the Sahelian Kingdoms, which would exist in some form until the early 20th century.