As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. During this period, political and natural disasters ravaged both Europe and the four khanates of the Mongol Empire. Consequently, the Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Krishnagiri Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.
In Europe, the Black Death claimed 25 million lives – wiping out one third of European society  – while England and France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France.
In the Indian subcontinent, the Islamic Bengal Sultanate was founded after its independence from the Delhi Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world, described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with.
- The transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age.
- Beginning of the Ottoman Empire, early expansion into the Balkans.
- Early 14th century: Attributed to Kao Ninga Monk Sewing is made. Kamakura period. It is now kept at The Cleveland Museum of Art.
- An account of Buddha's life, translated earlier into Greek by Saint John of Damascus and widely circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, became so popular that the two were venerated as saints.
- Singapore emerges for the first time as a fortified city and trading centre of some importance.
- Islam reaches Terengganu, on the Malay Peninsula.
- The Hausa found several city-states in the south of modern Niger.
- The poet Petrarch coins the term Dark Ages to describe the preceding 900 years in Europe, beginning with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 through to the renewal embodied in the Renaissance.
- Iwan vault, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, Persia (Iran), is built.
- Work begins on the Great Enclosure at Great Zimbabwe, built of un-cemented, dressed stone. The city's population is now between 10,000 and 40,000.