World Map (except the Americas
) circa 1200 A.D.
The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar. After its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe, while the Muslim Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of the Indian subcontinent. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.
, recognised as the most influential Western medieval legal scholar and theologian.
- 1290 - By the Edict of Expulsion, King Edward I of England orders all Jews to leave the Kingdom of England.
- 1291 – The Swiss Confederation of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden forms.
- 1291 – Mamluk Sultan of Egypt al-Ashraf Khalil captures Acre, thus ending the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (the final Christian state remaining from the Crusades).
- 1292 – Jayakatwang, duke of Kediri, rebelled and killed Kertanegara, ended the Singhasari kingdom.
- 1292 – Marco Polo, on his voyage from China to Persia, visited Sumatra and reported that, on the northern part of Sumatra, there were six trading ports, including Ferlec, Samudera and Lambri.
- 1293 – Mongol invasion of Java, Kublai Khan of Yuan dynasty China, sent punitive attack against Kertanegara of Singhasari. The Mongol forces were repelled.
- 1293 – In 10 November the coronation of Nararya Sangramawijaya as the monarch of Majapahit kingdom, marked the foundation of Hindu Majapahit kingdom in eastern Java.
- 1296 − First War of Scottish Independence begins.
- 1297 – Membership in the Mazor Consegio or the Great Council of Venice of the Venetian Republic is sealed and limited in the future to only those families whose names have been inscribed therein.
- 1299 – Ottoman Empire is established under Osman I.
- 1300 – Islam is thought to have become established in the Aceh region.
- 1300 – Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti founded Kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara|Sultanate of Kutai in the Tepian Batu or