Đại Việt

Dai Viet Flag (Tay Son Dynasty)
Grand Prince of Hưng Đạo, was an imperial prince, statesman and military commander of Đại Việt during the Trần Dynasty.
Decisive defeat of the Kublei Khan's Mongol fleet and army in 1288 in the battle of Bach Dang River by the Dai-Viet.
Mông Đồng 艨艟 is a class of near-shore warship and riverine boat that played a dominant role in medieval Vietnamese naval forces for over a thousand years.
East Asian states circa AD 1100
Hoa Lư – Đại Cồ Việt Imperial Capital
History of Vietnam
(Geographic
Renaming
)
Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the south (the Nam tiến, 1069-1757).
2879–2524 BCXích Quỷ
2524–258 BCVăn Lang
257–179 BCÂu Lạc
204–111 BCNam Việt
111 BC – 40 ADGiao Chỉ
40–43Lĩnh Nam
43–299Giao Chỉ
299–544Giao Châu
544–602Vạn Xuân
602–679Giao Châu
679–757An Nam
757–766Trấn Nam
766–866An Nam
866–967Tĩnh Hải quân
968–1054Đại Cồ Việt
1054–1400Đại Việt
1400–1407Đại Ngu
1407–1427Giao Chỉ
1428–1804Đại Việt
1804–1839Việt Nam
1839–1945Đại Nam
1887–1954French Indochina (Tonkin,
Annam, & Cochinchina)
from 1945Việt Nam
Main template

Đại Việt (大越, IPA: [ɗâjˀ vìət], literally Great Viet) is the name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804. Beginning with the rule of Lý Thánh Tông (r. 1054–1072), the third emperor of the Lý Dynasty, until the rule of Gia Long (r. 1802–1820), the first emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, it was the second-longest used name for the country after "Văn Lang".[1]

History

Beginning with the rule of Đinh Tiên Hoàng (r. 968–979), the country had been referred to officially as Đại Cồ Việt (大瞿越); cồ () in the name of Gautama Buddha (瞿曇·喬達摩). The term "Việt" is the same as the Chinese word "Yue", a name in ancient times of various non-Chinese groups who lived in what is now northern/southern China and northern Vietnam; the full name means "Great Buddhist Viet". In 1010 Lý Thái Tổ, founder of the Lý Dynasty, issued the "Edict on the Transfer of the Capital" and moved the capital of Đại Cồ Việt to Thăng Long (Hanoi) and built the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long where the Hanoi Citadel would later stand.

In 1054, Lý Thánh Tông – the third Lý emperor – renamed the country Đại Việt. In 1149 the Lý dynasty opened Vân Đồn seaport in the modern north-eastern province of Quảng Ninh to foreign trade.[2]

The Dai Viet successfully stopped attacks by the Khmer Empire under Suryavarman II in 1128, 1132, and 1138. A final expedition in 1150 had to withdraw before it could attack.[3]:160

Dai Viet is a strategic location. By invading Dai Viet, the Mongols would be able to bypass the Himalaya and drive deep into South East Asia. However, the Mongolians of the Yuan Dynasty invaded Dai Viet three times and were defeated. The last battle, the Battle of Bach Dang, was a decisive defeat for the Mongolians. Dai Viet's perseverance thrwarted Mongolian attempts to conquer South East Asia and prevented the fourth Mongolian invasion of Japan, as the Mongol navy was completely destroyed during Bach Dang. This became one the greatest victories in Vietnamese military history.

In 1400, the founder of the Hồ dynasty, Hồ Quý Ly usurped the throne and changed the country's name to "Đại Ngu" (大虞). 7 years later, in 1407, Vietnam fell under Ming dynasty domination, which lasted for 20 years until 1427. The Ming renamed the area "Jiaozhi". In 1428, Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê dynasty, liberated Jiaozhi and restored the kingdom of "Đại Việt".

The name "Đại Việt" came to end when the Nguyễn dynasty took power. The country's name was officially changed yet again, in 1804, this time to "Việt Nam" (越南) by Gia Long.